Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-w65q4 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-09-26T07:25:22.716Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false


Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 September 2016

Max Cresswell
Victoria University of Wellington
Edwin Mares
Victoria University of Wellington
Adriane Rini
Massey University, Auckland
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Logical Modalities from Aristotle to Carnap
The Story of Necessity
, pp. 317 - 338
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abaci, U., 2014, “Kant's Only Possible Argument and Chignell's Real Harmony,” Kantian Review 19(1), 1–25.Google Scholar
Abaelard, 1970, Petrus Abaelardus, Dialectica, 2nd ed., ed. Rijk, L. M. De, Assen: Van Gorcum, Tract. II.2, 191–210.
Abaelard, 2010, “Petrus Abaelardus, Glossae Super Peri Hermenias,” in Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis 206, ed. Jacobi, K. and Strub, C. Brepols: Turnhout, cap. 12, 391–433.
Ackrill, J. L., 1963, Aristotle's Categories and De Interpretatione, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Adam, Ch and Tannery, P., 1964–1976, (AT), Oeuvres de Descartes, 11 vols., Paris: J. Vrin.
Adams, M. 1973, “Did Ockham Know of Material and Strict Implication,” Franciscan Studies 33, 5–37.Google Scholar
Adams, R. M., 1994. Leibniz: Determinist, Theist, Idealist, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Adams, R. M. 2000, “God, Possibility and Kant,” Faith and Philosophy 17, 425–440.Google Scholar
Adams, R. M., and Kretzmann, N., 1983, Ockham, William, Predestination, God's Foreknowledge and Future Contingents, tr. with intro by Adams, M. M. and Kretzmann, N. 2nd edition, Hackett Classics.
Adickes, E., 1924, Kant und das Ding an Sich, Berlin: Pan Verlag.
Alexander of Aphrodisias, 1883, On Aristotle's Prior Analytics, ed. Wallies, M., in Diels, 1882–1909, Vol. 2.1.
Alexander of Aphrodisias 1892, On Fate. ed. Bruns, I., Supplementum Aristotelicum, Vol. 2.2, Berlin: Reimer.
Alexander of Aphrodisias 1991, On Aristotle's Topics. ed. Wallies, M., in Diels 1882–1909, Vol. 2.2.
Allais, L., 2004, “Kant's ‘One World’: Interpreting Transcendental Idealism,” British Journal for the History of Philosophy 12, 655–684.Google Scholar
Allison, H., 1983, Kant's Transcendental Idealism, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. (2004). Revised and Enlarged Edition.
Allison, H. 1994, “Causality and Causal Laws in Kant: A Critique of Michael Friedman” in Parrini, P. (1994), 291–307.
Allwein, G. and Barwise, J., ed., 1996, Logical Reasoning with Diagrams, Oxford University Press.
Ameriks, K., 1982, “Recent Work on Kant's Theoretical Philosophy,” The Philosophical Quarterly 19, 1–24.Google Scholar
Ameriks, K. 2003, Interpreting Kant's Three Critiques. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ammonius, , 1897, Ammonius in Aristotelis De Interpretatione Commentarius, ed. Busse, A., in Diels, 1882–1909, Vol. 4.5.
Anderson, A. R., and Belnap, N. D., 1975, Entailment: Logic of Relevance and Necessity, Vol. I. Princeton University Press.
Anderson, R. L., 2004, “It Adds Up After All: Kant's Philosophy of Arithmetic in Light of the Traditional Logic,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69, 501–540.Google Scholar
Angelelli, I., 1979, “The Aristotelian Modal Syllogistic in Modern Modal Logic,” in Konstruktionen versus Positionen II (P. Lorenzen zum 60. Geburtstag), ed. Lorenz, K., Berlin: de Gruyter, 176–215.
Anselm of Canterbury, 1936, “Ein neues unvollendetes Werk des hl. Anselm von Canterbury,” Beiträge zur Geschichte der Philosophie und Theologie des Mittelalters 33(3), 23–48.
Anselm of Canterbury, 1968, Anselmi Cantuariensis Archiepiscopi Opera Omnia, ed. Schmitt, F. S., Stuttgart: Friedrich Fromann Verlag.
Anstey, P. R., 2011, John Locke and Natural Philosophy, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Anstey, P. R. (forthcoming) “Locke and non-propositional knowledge.”
Aquila, R., 1979, ““Things in Themselves: Intentionality and Reality in Kant,” Archiv Fur Geschichte der Philosophie 61, 293–307.Google Scholar
Aristotle, , 1985, The Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation, ed. Barnes, Jonathan, 2 vols., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Aristotle, 1994, Posterior Analytics, Translated with an Introduction and Commentary by Jonathan Barnes, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 2nd ed.
Aristotle, 1998, Aristotle, Metaphysics, trans. and with an introduction and commentary by Makin, Stephen, Clarendon Aristotle Series Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Aristotle, 2009, Aristote, Topiques tome I, livres I-IV ed. Brunschwig, Jacques, Paris: Les belles lettres.
Arnauld, A. and Nicole, P., 1996, Logic or the Art of Thinking, trans. Buroker, J. V., Cambridge University Press.
Arnim, J. von, Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, Vols. I-IV. Leipzig: Teubner. 1902.
Ashworth, E. J., 1974, Language and Logic in the Post-Medieval Period, Dordrecht: D. Reidel.
Astroh, M., 2001, “Petrus Abaelardus on Modalities de re and de dicto,” Potentialität und Possibilität: Modalaussagen in der Geschichte der Metaphysik, ed. Buchheim, T., Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog, 79–95.
Averroes, (Ibn Ruṣd), 1562. Quaesita octo in librum Priorum, in Aristotelis omnia quae extant opera – Averrois Cordubensis in ea opera omnes, qui ad haec usque tempora peruenere, commentarii (Venetiis apud Iunctas).
Averroes, 1954, Tah al-tah: The Incoherence of the “Incoherence,” trans. Bergh, Simon Van Den, 2 vols., Oxford University Press.
Avicenna, (Ibn Sīnā), 1977, Liber de philosophia prima sive scientia divina ed. Riet, S. van, Louvain: E. Peters.
Avicenna, 1984, Remarks and Admonitions [Pointers and Reminders] translated from the original Arabic with an introduction and notes by Inati, Shams Constantine, Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.
Avicenna, 2004, The Metaphysics of the Healing, trans. Marmura, Michael, Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press.
Avicenna, 2011, Deliverance Logic, trans. Ahmed, Asad Q. (Oxford University Press).
Bacon, F., 2004, The Instauratio magna Part II: Novum organum and Associated Texts, Oxford Francis Bacon, trans. and ed. Graham, Rees, Vol. XI, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Barreau, H., 1978, “Cléanthe et Chrysippe face au maitre-argument de Diodore,” in Brunschwig 1978, 20–41.
Barrow, I., 1734, The Usefulness of Mathematical Learning, trans. John, Kirby, London: Stephen Austen.
Becker, A., 1933, Die Aristotelische Theorie der Möglichkeitsschlüsse, Berlin: Junker und Dünnhaupt.
Becker, O., 1930, “Zur Logic der Modalitäten,” Jahrbuch fur Philosophie und phänomenologische Forschung 11, 497–548.Google Scholar
Beeley, P., 2002. “Leibniz on Wachter's Elucidarius cabalisticus: A Critical Edition of the So-Called ‘Refutation of Spinoza.’The Leibniz Review 12, 1–14.Google Scholar
Beere, J., 2009, Doing and Being: An Interpretation of Aristotle's Metaphysics Theta, Oxford University Press [Oxford Aristotle Series].
Beiser, F., 2002, German Idealism: The Struggle against Subjectivism 1781–1801, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bennett, J. F., 2000, “Infallibility and Modal Knowledge in Some Early Modern Philosophers,” in Mathematics and Necessity: Essays in the History of Philosophy, ed. Smiley, Timothy, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 139–166.
Bird, G., 1962, Kant's Theory of Knowledge, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Blackburn, P., and Jørgensen, K., 2012, “Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic,” in Advances in Modal Logic, London: King's College, 144–160.
Bluck, R. S., 1963, “On the Interpretation of Aristotle, De Interpretatione 12–13,” Classical Quarterly 13, 214–222.Google Scholar
Blumenfeld, D., 1988. “Freedom, Contingency, and Things Possible in Themselves.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 49(1): 81–101. doi:10.2307/2107993.Google Scholar
Blundeville, T., 1617, The Arte of Logick, London [1st edition 1599].
Bobzien, S., 1986, Die stoische Modallogik. Königshausen & Neumann.
Bobzien, S. 1993, “Chrysippus’ modal logic and its relation to Philo and Diodorus,” in Döring, K. and Th. Ebert (eds) Dialektiker und Stoiker, Stuttgart, 63–84.
Bobzien, S. 1999, “Logic: The Megarics, the Stoics,” in The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy, ed.ALgra, K., Barnes, J.. Mansfeld, J., Schofield, M., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 83–157.
Bobzien, S. 2003, “Stoic Logic,” in The Cambridge Companion to the Stoics, ed. Inwood, B., Cambridge University Press, 85–123.
Bochenski, J. M., 1951, Ancient Formal Logic, Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Boethius, , 1877, Commentarii in Librum Aristotelis Peri Hermenias, ed. Meiser, C., Leipzig: Teubner.
Boethius, 1969, De Hypotheticis Syllogismis, ed. Obertello, L., Brescia: Paidea.
Boethius, 2008, De Syllogismo Categorico, ed. Thörnqvist, C. Thomsen, Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg.
Bonitz, H., 1870, Index Aristotelicus, Berlin: Reimer.
Boyle, R., 1999–2000, Works: The Works of Robert Boyle, ed. Hunter, Michael and Davis, Edward B., 14 vols., London: Pickering and Chatto.
Boyle, R. 2006, Boyle on Atheism, transcribed by and ed. MacIntosh, J. J., Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Brading, K., 2011, “On Composite Systems: Descartes, Newton, and the Law-Constitutive Approach,” in Vanishing Matter and the Laws of Motion: Descartes and Beyond, ed. Jalobeanu, Dana and Anstey, P. R., New York: Routledge, 130–152.
Brading, K. 2012, “Newton's Law-Constitutive Approach to Bodies: A Response to Descartes,” in Interpreting Newton: Critical Essays, ed. Janiak, Andrew and Schliesser, Eric, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 13–32.
Brandon, E. P., 1978, “Hintikka on ἀκολουθεῖν,” Phronesis 23, 173–178.Google Scholar
Braüner, T., 1998, “Peircean Graphs for the Modal Logic S5,” in Conceptual Structures: Theory, Tools and Applications, ed. Mugnier, Marie-Laure and Chein, Michel, Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, 255–269.
Braüner, T. 2006, “Hybrid Logic,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
Brennan, T., 1994, “Two Modal Theses in the Second Half of Metaphysics Theta 4.” Phronesis 39, 160–173.Google Scholar
Brown, G., 1987. “Compossibility, Harmony, and Perfection in Leibniz.” The Philosophical Review 96(2), 173–203.Google Scholar
Brunschwig, J., 1969, “La proposition particulière et les preuves de non-concluance chez Aristote,” Cahiers pour l'Analyse 10, 3–26.Google Scholar
Brunschwig, J. 1978, Les stoïciens et leur logique. Vrin. Second edition 2006.
Buddensiek, F., 1994, Die Modallogik des Aristoteles in den Analytica Priora A, Hildesheim: Olms.
Burch, R. W., 1994, “Game-Theoretical Semantics for Peirce's Existential Graphs,” Synthese 99, 361–375.Google Scholar
Burnyeat, M. F., 1981, “Aristotle on Understanding Knowledge,” in Aristotle on Science: The Posterior Analytics, Proceedings of the Eighth Symposium Aristotelicum held in Pisa from September 2 to 15, 1978, E. Berti, ed., Padua: Antenore, 97-139.
Carnap, R., 1937, The Logical Syntax of Language, London: Kegan Paul, Trench Truber.
Carnap, R. 1946, “Modalities and Quantification,” The Journal of Symbolic Logic 11, 33–64.Google Scholar
Carnap, R. 1947, Meaning and Necessity, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Second edition 1956, references are to the second edition.
Carnap, R. 1950, “Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology,” Revue Intern de Phil 4, 20–40. Reprinted in the second edition of Carnap 1947, 205–221. Page references are to this reprint.Google Scholar
Carnap, R. 1952, “Meaning Postulates,” Philosophical Studies 3, 65–73. Reprinted in the second edition of Carnap 1947, 222–229. Page references are to this reprint.Google Scholar
Carnap, R. 1955, “Meaning and Synonymy in Natural Languages,” Philosophical Studies 7. Reprinted in the second edition of Carnap 1947, 233–250. Page references are to this reprint.Google Scholar
Carnap, R. 1963, “Carnap's Intellectual Biography,” The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap, ed. Schilp, P. A., La Salle, IL: Open Court, 3–84.
Chignell, A., 2007a, “Belief in Kant,” The Philosophical Review 116(3), 323–360.Google Scholar
Chignell, A. 2007b, “Kant's Concepts of Justification,” Noûs 41(2), 33–63.Google Scholar
Chignell, A. 2009, “Kant, Modality, and the Most Real Being,” Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 91(2), 157–192.Google Scholar
Chignell, A. 2010, “Real Repugnance and Belief about Things in Themselves: A Problem and Kant's Three Solutions,” in Kant's Moral Metaphysics, ed. Krueger, J. and Lipscomb, B., Berlin: Walter DeGruyter.
Chignell, A. 2012, “Kant, Real Possibility, and the Threat of Spinoza,” The Monist 121(483), 635–675.Google Scholar
Chignell, A. 2014, “Kant and the ‘Monstrous’ Ground of Possibility: A Reply to Abaci and Yong.” Kantian Review, 19(1), 53–69.Google Scholar
Cicero, , 1975, De divinatione; De fato; Timaeus, ed. Giomini, R., Leipzig: Teubner.
Cicero, 1933, On the Nature of the Gods, Academica, trans. Rackham, H., London: Heinemann.
Conway, A., 1692, The Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy, trans. J. C. (Crull, Jodocus?), London.
Cottingham, J., Stoothoff, R. and Murdoch, D., trans., 1984–1991, The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, 3 vols., Vols. I and II, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985, and Vol. III, The Correspondence, by the same translators plus A. Kenny, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Cresswell, M. J., 2013, “Carnap and Mckinsey: Topics in the Pre-History of Possible Worlds Semantics,” Proceedings of the 12th Asian Logic Conference, ed. Brendle, J., Downey, R., Goldblatt, R. and Kim, B. Singapore: World Scientific, 53–75.
Cresswell, M. J. 2014, “The Completeness of Carnap's Predicate Logic,” Australasian Journal of Logic 11, 47–63.Google Scholar
Crivelli, P., 2004, Aristotle on Truth, Cambridge: Cambridge Universit Press.
Cudworth, R., 1678, The True Intellectual System of the Universe, London: Richard Royston.
Cudworth, R. 1996, A Treatise Concerning Eternal and Immutable Morality, ed. Hutton, Sarah, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Circa 1664, 1st ed. 1731.
Cunning, D., 2014, “Descartes’ modal metaphysics,” The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy, Spring 2014 ed., ed. Edward N. Zalta, URL = <>
Curley, E. M., 1984, “Descartes on the Creation of the Eternal Truths,” The Philosophical Review 93, 569–597.Google Scholar
D'Alembert, J., 1743, Traité de dynamique, Paris.
de Harven, V., 2015, “How Nothing Can Be Something: The Stoic Theory of Void,” Ancient Philosophy 35, 405-29.
Denyer, N., 1981, “Time and Modality in Diodorus Cronus,” Theoria 47, 31–53.Google Scholar
Descartes, R., 1985. The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, ed. Cottingham, John, Stoothoff, Robert, Murdoch, Dugald, and Kenny, Anthony, 3 vols., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Descartes, R. 1996. Oeuvres de Descartes, ed. Adam, Charles and Tannery, Paul, 11 vols., Paris: J. Vrin.
Diels, H., ed., 1882–1909, Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca, Berlin: Reimer.
Laërtius, Diogenes, 1964, Diogenis Laertii Vitae Philosphorum, ed. Long, H. S., Oxford Classical Texts, 2 vols., Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Döring, K., 1989, “Gab es eine Dialektische Schule?” Phronesis 34, 293–310.Google Scholar
Downing, L., 1992, “Are Corpuscles Unobservable in Principle for Locke?,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 30, 33–52.Google Scholar
Du Moulin, P., 1624, The Elements of Logick, trans. De-Lawne, Nathanael, London: Printed by I. D. for Nicolas Bourne.
Ebert, T. and Nortmann, U., 2007, Aristoteles: Analytica Priora, Buch I, Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
El-Rouayheb, K., 2009. “Impossible Antecedents and Their Consequences: Some Thirteenth-Century Arabic Discussions,” History and Philosophy of Logic 30, 209–225.Google Scholar
Epictetus, , 1916, Epicteti Dissertationes ab Arriano digestae, ed. Shenkl, H., Leipzig: Teubner.
Erdmann, B., 1878, Kants Kriticismus in der ersten und in der zweiten Auflage der Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Leipzig: Voss.
Fisch, M., 1967, “Peirce's Progress from Nominalism toward Realism,” The Monist 51(2), 159–178.Google Scholar
Fisch, M. 1986, Peirce, Semeiotic, and Pragmatism, Bloomington, IN:Hilpinen, Risto (1982, “On C. S. Peirce's theory of the proposition: Peirce as a Precursor of Game-Theoretical Semantics), The Monist 62, 182–189.
Fisher, A. R. J., 2011, “Causal and Logical Necessity in Malebranche's Occasionalism,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41, 523–548.Google Scholar
Fitting, M. and Mendelsohn, R. L., 1998, First-Order Modal Logic, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Frankfurt, H., 1977, “Descartes on the Creation of the Eternal Truths,” The Philosophical Review 86, 36–57.Google Scholar
Frede, D., 1976, “Review of Hintikka 1973,” Philosophische Rundschau 22, 237–242.Google Scholar
Frede, D. 1990, “Fatalism and Future Truth,” Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy 6, 195–227.Google Scholar
Frede, D. 2003, “Stoic Determinism” in ed. Inwood, B. The Cambridge Companion to the Stoics. Cambridge University Press. 179–205.
Frede, M., 1974, Die stoische Logik. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.
Galilei, Galileo, 1989, Two New Sciences, Including Centers of Gravity and Force of Gravity and Force of Percussion, Toronto, Wall and Thompson.
Galileo, Galilei 1992, “Treatise on Demonstration,” trans. Wallace, William A. in Galileo's Logical Treatises, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Garland, , (Compotista, Garlandus), 1959, Dialectica, ed. Rijk, L. M. De, Assen: Van Gorcum.
Garsia, Petrus, 1489, Determinationes Magistrales, Rome.
Gassendi, P., 1981, Institutio Logica, trans. Jones, Howard [1658], Assen: van Gorcum.
Gellius, , 1968, Aulus Gellius Noctes Atticae, ed. Marshall, P. K., Oxford Classical Texts, Vols. 1–2, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Gendler, T., and Hawthorne, J., eds. Conceivability and Possibility, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Gödel, K., and Feferman, S., 1995. Kurt Gödel: Collected Works. Vol. III. Unpublished Essays and Lectures, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goheen, J. D., and Mothershead, J. L., eds., 1970, Collected Papers of Clarence Irving Lewis, Stanford University Press, (cited as CP).
Gohlke, P., 1936, Die Entstehung der Aristotelischen Logik, Berlin: Junker und Dünnhaupt.
Gourinat, J-B., 2000, La Dialectique des Stoïciens, Vrin.
Gregory of Rimini, Gregorii Ariminensis OESA Lectura super Primum et Secundum Sententiarum ed. Trapp, A. et al., Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Gregory of Rimini 1981, Tomus I: Super Primum (Dist. 1–6).
Gregory of Rimini 1982, Tomus II: Super Primum (Dist. 17–17).
Gregory of Rimini 1984, Tomus III: Super Primum (Dist. 19–48).
Gregory of Rimini 1979a, Tomus IV: Super Secundum (Dist. 1–5).
Gregory of Rimini 1979b, Tomus V: Super Secundum (Dist. 6–18).
Gregory of Rimini 1980, Tomus VI: Super Secundum (Dist. 24–44).
Gregory of Rimini 1987, Tomus VII: Indices.
Griffin, M. V., 2013. Leibniz, God and Necessity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grosseteste, Robert, 1912, Die Philosophishen Werke des Robert Grossetest: Bischofs von Lincoln, Beitraäge zur Geschichte de Philosophie des Mittelalters, ed Baur, L., 9, Münster. W.
Hacking, I., 1967, “Possibility,” The Philosophical Review 76, 143–168.Google Scholar
Hacking, I. 1980, “Proof and Eternal Truths: Descartes and Leibniz,” in Gaukroger, Stephen, ed., Descartes: Philosophy, Mathematics and Physics, Sussex: The Harvester Press.
Hankinson, R. J., 1999, “Determinism and Indeterminism” in eds. ALgra, K., Barnes, J.. Mansfeld, J., Schofield, M.. The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. 1999. 513–541.
Hanna, R., 2006, Kant, Science, and Human Nature. Oxford University Press.
Hardwick, Charles (ed.), 1977, Semiotics and Signifies: The Correspondence between Charles S. Peirce and Victoria Lady Welby. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Hawthorne, J. and Cover, J. A., 2000, “Infinite Analysis and the Problem of the Lucky Proof,” Studia Leibnitiana XXXII(2), 151–165.Google Scholar
Heylen, J., 2010, “Carnap's Theory of Descriptions and Its Problems,” Studia Logica, 94, 355–380.Google Scholar
Hilpinen, R. 1982, “On C. S. Peirce's Theory of the Proposition: Peirce as a Precursor of Game-Theoretical Semantics,” The Monist 62, 182–189.Google Scholar
Hintikka, K. J. J., 1969, Models for Modalities: Selected Essays, Dordrecht: Reidel.
Hintikka, K. J. J. 1973, Time and Necessity: Studies in Aristotle's Theory of Modality, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hintikka, K. J. J. 1977, Aristotle on Modality and Determinism, in collaboration with Remes, U. and Knuuttila, S., Acta Philosophica Fennica 29.1, Amsterdam: North Holland.
Hintikka, K. J. J. 1997, “The Place of C. S. Peirce in the History of Logical Theory,” in The Rule of Reason, ed. Brunning, J. and Forester, P., Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 140–161.
Hodges, W., 2010, “Ibn Sīnā on understood time and aspect (Qiyās 1.3),”
Hodges, W. 2012a, “Ibn Sīnā's modal logic,” slide 31.
Hodges, W. 2012b, Translation of Ibn Ruṣd, Mas'ala i.3 p.122, in (Hodges, “Handout for ‘Necessary and permanent in Ibn Sīnā’,”
Hodges, W. 2014, Mathematical Background to the Logic of Ibn Sīnā Draft,
Hookway, C., 1985, Peirce, London: Routledge.
Hookway, C. 2008, “Pragmatism and the Given: C. I. Lewis, Quine, and Peirce” in The Oxford Handbook of American Philosophy, ed.Misak, C. J., Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Horn, L. R., 1973, “Greek Grice: A Brief Survey of Proto-Conversational Rules in the History of Logic,” Proceedings of the Chicago Linguistic Society 9, 205–214.Google Scholar
Horn, L. R. 1989, A Natural History of Negation, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Houser, N. and Roberts, D., Evra, J. Van, eds., 1997, Studies in the Logic of Charles Sanders Peirce, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Huby, P. M., 2002, “Did Aristotle Reply to Eudemus and Theophrastus on Some Logical Issues?” In Eudemus of Rhodes, Rutgers University Studies in Classical Humanities, Vol. 11, ed. Bodnár, I. and Fortenbaugh, W. W., New Brunswick:Transaction, 85–106.
Hume, D., 1902, An Enquiry Concerning the Human Understanding, Ed. Selby-Bigge, L. A., Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Hunter, M., and Davis, E. B., 1999–2000, The Works of Robert Boyle, ed., 14 vols., London: Pickering and Chatto.
Inwood, B., and Gerson, L. P., 1997, Hellenistic Philosophy, Introductory Readings, Indianapolis: Hackett. 1988. 1997.
Ishiguro, H., 1990. Leibniz's Philosophy of Logic and Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jesseph, D. M., 1999, Squaring the Circle: the War Between Hobbes and Wallis, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jesseph, D. M. 2013, “Logic and Demonstrative Knowledge,” in Peter, Anstey, ed., The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Seventeenth Century, Oxford University Press,373–390.
Johnson, F., 1989, “Models for Modal Syllogisms,” Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 30(2), 271–284.Google Scholar
Johnson, F. 1995, “Apodeictic Syllogisms: Deductions and Decision Procedures,” History and Philosophy of Logic 16(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
Kant, I., 1900-, Kants gesammelte Schriften, ed. the Berlin- Brandenburg (formerly Royal Prussian) Academy of Sciences, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Kant, I. 1992, Theoretical Philosophy 1775–1770, trans. and ed. Walford, D. and Meerbote, R., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kant, I. 1996, Religion and Rational Theology, trans. and ed., Wood, A. and Giovanni, G. di, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kant, I. 1997, Critique of Pure Reason, trans. and ed. Guyer, P. and Wood, A., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Karttunen, L., 1972, “ Possible and Must,” in Syntax and Semantics, ed. Kimball, J., vol. 1, New York: Academic Press, 1–20.
King, C. G., 2014, “Review of Striker 2009,” Gnomon 86, 484–488.Google Scholar
King, P., 2015, “Pseudo-Joscelin: The Treatise on Genera and Species,” Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 2, 104–211.Google Scholar
Kneale, M., 1937, “Logical and Metaphysical Necessity,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. Harrison & Sons, 253–268.
Kneale, W., and Kneale, M., 1962, The Development of Logic. Oxford University Press. 1962.
Knuuttila, S., 1980, “Time and Modality in Scholasticism,” in Knuuttila, S. ed. Reforging the Great Chain of Being, Dordrecht: Reidel, 163–257.
Kripke, S. A., 1972, Naming and Necessity, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Kung, J., 1978, “ Metaphysics 8.4: Can Be but Will Not Be,” Apeiron 12, 32–36.Google Scholar
Lane, R., 2007, “Peirce's Modal Shift: From Set Theory to Pragmaticism,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 45(4), 551–576.Google Scholar
Langton, R., 1998, Kantian Humility, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lear, J., 1979, “Aristotle's Compactness Proof,” Journal of Philosophy 74(4), 198–215.Google Scholar
Legg, C., 2008, “The Problem of the Essential Icon,” American Philosophical Quarterly 45(3), 207–232.Google Scholar
Legg, C. 2012, “The Hardness of the Iconic Must: Can Peirce's Existential Graphs Assist Modal Epistemology?,” Philosophia Mathematica 20(1), 1–24.Google Scholar
Legg, C. 2014, “Things Unreasonably Compulsory”: A Peircean Challenge to a Human Theory of Perception, Particularly with Respect to Perceiving Necessary Truths,” Cognitio 15(1), 89–112.Google Scholar
Leibniz, G. W., 1875–1890, 1961. Die philosophischen Schriften von Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, ed. Gerhardt, Carl Immanuel, Berlin: Weidman. [Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1961, Authors who cite Leibniz 1961 are referring to this reprint]
Leibniz, G. W. 1903, Opuscules et Fragments Inédits de Leibniz, ed. Couturat, Louis, Paris: Félix Alcan.
Leibniz, G. W. 1923-. Sämtliche Schriften und Briefe, ed. Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Darmstadt and Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
Leibniz, G. W. 1948, Textes inédits: d'après les manuscrits de la Bibliothèque provincale de Hanovre. ed. Grua, Gaston, 2 vols., Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Leibniz, G. W. 1966, Logical Papers: A Selection, ed. Parkinson, G. H. R., Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Leibniz, G. W. 1969, Philosophical Papers and Letters, ed. Loemker, Leroy E., 2nd ed., Dordrecht: Reidel.
Leibniz, G. W. 1981, New Essays on Human Understanding, Remnant, Peter and Bennett, Jonathan, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leibniz, G. W. 1981a, Theodicy, trans. Huggard, E. M., La Salle: Open Court, 1985.
Leibniz, G. W. New Essays on Human Understanding, trans. and ed. Remnant, Peter and Bennett, Jonathan, Cambridge University Press.
Leibniz, G. W. 1985, Theodicy, trans. Huggard, E. M., La Salle, IL: Open Court.
Leibniz, G. W. 1989, Philosophical Essays, ed. Ariew, Roger and Garber, Daniel, Indianapolis: Hackett.
Leibniz, G. W. 1992, De Summa Rerum: Metaphysical Papers, 1675–76, ed. Parkinson, G. H. R., New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.
Leibniz, G. W. 1995, Philosophical Writings, ed. Morris, Mary and Parkinson, G. H. R., London: Everyman.
Leibniz, G. W. 1996, New Essays on Human Understanding, ed. Remnant, Peter and Bennett, Jonathan, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leibniz, G. W. 2006, Confessio Philosophi: Papers Concerning the Problem of Evil, 1671–1678, ed. Sleigh, R. C., New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Levinson, S. C., 1983, Pragmatics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lewis, C. I., 1912, “Implication and the Algebra of Logic,” Mind 21, 522–531.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1912b, “Naturalism and Idealism,” University of California Chronicle, 14, 192–211. Reprinted in Lewis 1970.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1913, “Interesting Theorems in Symbolic Logic,” Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 10, 239–342.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1913b, “A New Algebra of Implications and Some Consequences,” Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 10, 428–438.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1914, “The Matrix Algebra for Implications,” The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 11, 589–600.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1916, “Types of Order and the System Σ,” The Philosophical Review 25, 407– 419. Reprinted in Lewis 1970, 360–370.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1917, “The Issues Concerning Material Implication,” The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 14, 350–356.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1918, A Survey of Symbolic Logic, Berkeley, University of California Press, first edition.
Lewis, C. I. 1920, “Strict Implication – an Emendation,” The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 17, 300–302.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1921, “The Structure of Logic and Its Relation to Other Systems,” The Journal of Philosophy 18, 505–516. Reprinted in Lewis 1970, pp 371–382.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1923, “Facts, Systems, and the Unity of the World,” The Journal of Philosophy 20, 141–151. Reprinted in Lewis 1970, pp 383–393.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1923b, “A Pragmatic Conception of the A Priori,” The Journal of Philosophy 20, 169–177. Reprinted in Lewis 1970, pp 231–239.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1926, “The Pragmatic Element in Knowledge,” University of California Publications in Philosophy 6, 205–227.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1929, Mind and the World Order: Outline of a Theory of Knowledge, New York: Charles Scribner and Sons.
Lewis, C. I. 1932, “Alternative Systems of Logic,” The Monist 17, 481–507. Reprinted in Lewis 1970, pp 400–419.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1946, Analysis of Knowledge and Valuation, LaSalle, IL: Open Court.
Lewis, C. I. 1955, “Realism or Phenomenalism?,” The Philosophical Review 64, 233–247. Reprinted in Lewis 1970, pp 335–347.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. I. 1968, “Autobiography,” in The Philosophy of C. I. Lewis, ed. Schilpp, P. A., LaSalle, IL: Open Court, 1–21
Lewis, C. I. 1970. Collected Papers of Clarence Irving Lewis, ed. Goheen, John D. and Mothershead, John L., Jr., Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Lewis, C. I., and Langford, C. H., 1932, Symbolic Logic. New York: Dover, second edition, 1959 [Note: references to Lewis and Langford 1959, are to the second edition of Lewis and Langford 1932]
Lewis, C. I. and Langford, C. H. 2014, “A Note on Strict Implication,” History and Philosophy of Logic 35, 44–49. The manuscript of this article was written before or in 1935.Google Scholar
Lewis, D. K. 1973, “Causation,” The Journal of Philosophy 70(17), 556–567.
Lewis, C. I. 1986, On the Plurality of Worlds, Oxford: Blackwell.
Lin, M., 2012. “Rationalism and Necessitarianism,” Noûs 46(3): 418–448.Google Scholar
Locke, J., 1823, The Works of John Locke, 12th edition, 10 vols., London: Tegg.
Locke, J., 1975, An Essay concerning Human Understanding, 4th ed., ed. Nidditch, P. H, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975 [1st edition 1690; 4th edition 1700].
Locke, J., 1989, Some Thoughts Concerning Education, eds Yolton, John W. and Yolton, Jean S., Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Long, A. A., 1970, “Stoic Determinism and Alexander of Aphrodisias De Fato (I-Xiv),” Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 52, 247–268.Google Scholar
Long, A. A., 1971, “Freedom and Determinism in the Stoic Theory of Human Action,” Problems in Stoicism. The Athlone Press. 173–199.Google Scholar
Long, A. A., and Sedley, D., 1987, The Hellenistic Philosophers. Cambridge University Press.
Look, B. C., 2006. “Some Remarks on the Ontological Arguments of Gödel and Leibniz,” in Einheit in der Vielheit: Akten des VIII. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses, ed. Breger, H. et al., Hanover: Hartmann, 510–517.
Look, B. C., (forthcoming) “Leibniz's Arguments for the Existence of God.” In The Oxford Handbook to Leibniz, ed. Antognazza, Maria Rosa, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lovejoy, A. O., “Kant's Antithesis of Dogmatism and Criticism,” Mind 15, 1906, 191–214.Google Scholar
Lowde, J., 1694, A Discourse Concerning the Nature of Man, London: Walter Kettilby.
Łukasiewicz, J., 1957, Aristotle's Syllogistic from the Standpoint of Modern Formal Logic, 2nd ed., Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Łukasiewicz, J., 1972. On a Controversial Demonstration of Aristotle's Modal Syllogistic: An Enquiry on Prior Analytics A.15. Padua.
McCall, S., 1963. Aristotle's Modal Syllogisms, Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.
MacDonald, S., 1993, “Theory of Knowledge,” in The Cambridge Companion to Aquinas, eds. Kretzmann, N. and Stump, E., Cambridge University Press, 160–195.
MacIntosh, J. J., 1991, “Theological Question Begging,” Dialogue 30, 531–547.Google Scholar
MacIntosh, J. J. 1997, “The Argument from the Need for Similar or ‘Higher’ Qualities: Cudworth, Locke, and Clarke on God's Existence,” Enlightenment and Dissent 16, 29–59.Google Scholar
MacIntosh, J. J. 1998a, “Aquinas and Ockham on Time, Predestination and the Unexpected Examination,” Franciscan Studies 55, 181–220.Google Scholar
MacIntosh, J. J. 1998b, “Aquinas on Necessity ,” American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 72, 470–503.Google Scholar
MacIntosh, J. J. 2006, Boyle on Atheism, transcribed and edited, Toronto, University of Toronto Press.
Mackie, J. L., 1974, “ De What re Is de re Modality?Journal of Philosophy 71(16), 1974, 551–561.Google Scholar
McKirahan, R. D., 1992, Principles and Proofs: Aristotle's Theory of Demonstrative Science, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Maier, H., 1900, Die Syllogistik des Aristoteles II.1: Formenlehre und Technik des Syllogismus, Tübingen: Laupp.
Malcolm, N., 1960. “Anselm's Ontological Arguments,” The Philosophical Review 49, 41-62.
Makin, S., 1998, “Aristotle's Two Modal Theses Again,” Phronesis 44, 114–126.Google Scholar
Malink, M., 2013, Aristotle's Modal Syllogistic, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Malink, M., and Rosen, J., 2013, “Proof by Assumption of the Possible in Prior Analytics 1. 15,” Mind 122, 953–986.Google Scholar
Mancosu, P., 1996, Philosophy of Mathematics and Mathematical Practice in the Seventeenth Century, New York: Oxford University Press.
Mares, E. D., 2013, “A Lewisian Semantics for S2,” History and Philosophy of Logic 34, 53–67.Google Scholar
Mares, E. D. 2014, “A Survey of Lewisian Logic: The Development of C. I. Lewis's Philosophy of Modal Logic,” (This volume).
Marion, M., 2009, “Why Play Logical Games?,” Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science 15, 3–26.Google Scholar
Martin, C. J., 2001, “Abaelard on Modality, Some Possibilities and Some Puzzles,” in Potentialität und Possibilität: Modalaussagen in der Geschichte der Metaphysik, Stuttgart, ed. Buchheim, T. et al., Frommann-Holzboog, 97–125.Google Scholar
Martin, C. J. 2004, “Logic,” in The Cambridge Companion to Abelard, ed.Brower, J. and Guilfoy, K. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 158–199.
Martin, C. J. 2009 “The Logical Textbooks and their Influence,” in The Cambridge Companion to Boethius, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009, 56–84.
Mates, B., 1953, Stoic Logic. University of California Press.
Mates, B. 1986. The Philosophy of Leibniz: Metaphysics and Language, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Menn, S., 1999, “The Stoic Theory of Categories”, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, XVII, 215-47.
Mignucci, M., 1969, Aristotele: Gli Analitici Primi, Napoli: Loffredo.
Mignuccin, M. “Sur la logique modale des stoïciens,” in Les stoïciens et leur logique, ed. Brunschwig, J., Vrin. 1978. 303–332.
Milton, J. R., 2012, “Locke and the Elements of Natural Philosophy: Some Problems of Attribution,” Intellectual History Review 22, 199–219.Google Scholar
Misak, C. J., 1991, Truth and the End of Inquiry: A Peircean Account of Truth, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Misak, C. J. 2013, The American Pragmatists, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Misak, C. J. (forthcoming). Cambridge Pragmatism: The Influence of Peirce and James on Ramsey and Wittgenstein, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
More, H., 1662, An Antidote Against Atheism, in A Collection of Several Philosophical Writings of Dr Henry More, London: William Borden, 2nd ed.
Morgan, C. G., 1979, “Modality, Analogy, and Ideal Experiments According to C. S. Peirce,” Synthese 41, 65–83.Google Scholar
Murphy, M. G., 2005, C. I. Lewis: The Last Great Pragmatist, Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Newlands, S., 2010. “The Harmony of Spinoza and Leibniz,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81(1): 64–104.Google Scholar
Newton, I., 1730, Opticks or a Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections and Colours of Light, London: William Innys, 4th ed.
Normore, C. G., 1984, “Future Contingents, in The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy ed. Kretzmann, N. and Pinborg, J., Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Normore, C. G. 1993, “The Necessity in Deduction: Cartesian Inference and Its Medieval Background,” Synthese 96, 437–454.Google Scholar
Nortmann, U., 1990, “Über die Stärke der aristotelischen Modallogik,” Erkenntnis 32, 61–82.Google Scholar
Nortmann, U. 1996, Modale Syllogismen, mögliche Welten, Essentialismus: eine Analyse der aristotelischen Modallogik, Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.
Nortmann, U. 2006, “Against Appearances True: On a Controversial Modal Theorem in Metaphysics Theta 4,” Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung 60: 380–393.Google Scholar
Ockham, William, 1970, Scriptum in Librum Primum Sententiarum (Ordinatio) , in Opera Theologica II, ed. Brown, Stephanus, New York: St. Bonaventure.
Ockham, William 1974a, Ockham's Theory of Terms, Part I of the Summa Logicae, translated and introduced by Loux, Michael J., Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame Press.
Ockham, William 1974b, Opera philosophica. Vol 1. Summa logicae, St Bonaventure, NY: Editiones Instituti Franciscani Universitatis S. Bonaventurae.
Ockham, William 1978, “ Tractatus de Praedestinatione ,” in Opera Philosophica II, ed. Boehner, Philotheus, New York: St. Bonaventure.
Ockham, William 1980a, Ockham's Theory of Propositions: Part II of the Summa Logicae, translated by Freddoso, Alfred J. and Schuurman, Henry, introduction by Freddoso, Alfred J., Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
Ockham, William 1980b, Quodlibeta Septem, ed Wey, J. C., Opera Theologica, Vol. 9, St. Bonaventure, NY: The Franciscan Institute.
Øhrstrøm, P., 1982, “‘Temporalis’ in Medieval Logic,” Franciscan Studies 42, 166–179.Google Scholar
Øhrstrøm, P. 1997, “C. S. Peirce and the Quest for Gamma Graphs” in Conceptual Structures: Fulfilling Peirce's Dream, Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer 357–370.
Oppy, G., 1995. Ontological Arguments and Belief in God. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pacius, J., 1597a, In Porphyrii Isagogen et Aristotelis Organum Commentarius Analyticus, Frankfurt: Heredes Andreae Wecheli.
Pacius, J. 1597b, In Porphyrii Isagogen et Aristotelis Organum Commentarius Analyticus, Frankfurt: Heredes Andreae Wecheli.
Parkinson, G. H. R., 1965, Logic and Reality in Leibniz's Metaphysics, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Parkinson, G. H. R. ed., 1973, Leibniz, Philosophical Writings, trans. Morris, M. and Parkinson, G. H. R., London: Dent.
Parrini, P., ed., 1994, Kant and Contemporary Epistemology, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Parry, W. T., 1968, “The Logic of C. I. Lewis,” in The Philosophy of C. I. Lewis, ed. Schilpp, P. A., LaSalle, IL: Open Court, 15–54. Google Scholar
Partington, J. R., 1961, A History of Chemistry, 4 vols., London: Macmillan.
Pascal, B. 1954, “ L'Esprit Geometrique ,” in Blaise Pascal, Œuvres Complètes, ed. Chevalier, Jacques, Paris: Librairie Gallimard.
Patterson, R., 1995, Aristotle's Modal Logic: Essence and Entailment in the Organon, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Patzig, G. 1968, Aristotle's Theory of the Syllogism, (Translated by Barnes, J.), Dordrecht: D. Reidel.
Peirce, C. S., 1870, “Description of a Notation for the Logic of Relatives, Resulting from an Amplification of the Conceptions of Boole's Calculus,” Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 9(2), 317–378.Google Scholar
Peirce, C. S. 1885, “On the Algebra of Logic: A Contribution to the Philosophy of Notation,” American Journal of Mathematics 7(2), 180–196.Google Scholar
Peirce, C. S. 1958–1966, The Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, Vols. 1–6, ed. Hartshorne, Charles and Weiss, Paul, Vols. 7–8, ed. Burks, A. W., Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Peirce, C. S. 1976, The New Elements of Mathematics, Vols. 1–3, ed. Eisele, Carolyn, Berlin: Mouton.
Peirce, C. S. 1976a, The Writings of Charles S. Peirce: A Chronological Edition, ed. Houser, Nathan, 6 vols., et al. Indianapolis: Peirce Edition Project, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis.
Peirce, C. S. 1997, Pragmatism as a Principle and Method of Right Thinking: The 1903 Harvard lectures on pragmatism, ed. Turrisi, P. A.: SUNY Press.
Peirce, C. S. 1998, The Essential Peirce: Selected Philosophical Writings, Vol. 2 (1893–1913), ed. The Peirce Edition Project, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Peirce, C. S. 2010, Philosophy of Mathematics: Selected Writings, ed. Moore, M. E., Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Peirce, C. S. n.d. Charles Sanders Peirce Papers, Houghton Library, Harvard University.
Pereboom, D. (2007, “Kant on Transcendental Freedom,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73, 537–567.Google Scholar
Perelmuter, Z., 2010, “ Nous and Two Kinds of Epistêmê in Aristotle's Posterior Analytics ,” Phronesis 55, 228–254.Google Scholar
Philodemus, , 1968, Philodemus: On the methods of inference, ed. , P., and De Lacy, E., Naples: Bibliopolis. 2nd ed., 1978.
Pietarinen, A., 2005, “Compositionality, Relevance, and Peirce's Logic of Existential Graphs,” Axiomathes 15(4), 513–540.Google Scholar
Pietarinen, A. 2006a, “Peirce's Contributions to Possible-Worlds Semantics,” Studia Logica 82(3), 345–369.Google Scholar
Pietarinen, A. 2006b, Signs of Logic: Peircean Themes on the Philosophy of Language, Games, and Communication, Dordrecht: Springer.
Pizzi, C., 2008, “Aristotle's Cubes and Consequential Implication,” Logica universalis 2, 143–153.Google Scholar
Plantinga, A., 1978. The Nature of Necessity, Cambridge: Clarendon Press.
Plutarch, 1976a, De communibus notitiis contra Stoicos. Moralia XIII.2. ed. Cherniss, H., Cambridge, MA, and London:Loeb.
Plutarch, 1976b, De Stoicroum repugnantiis, Moralia XIII.2. ed.Cherniss, H., Cambridge, MA, and London:Loeb.
Prauss, G., 1974, Kant und das Problem der Dinge an Sich, Bonn: Grundman.
Prior, A. N., 1955, “Diodoran Modalities,” The Philosophical Quarterly 5, 205–213.Google Scholar
Prior, A. N. 1960, “Identifiable Individuals,” Review of Metaphysics, 13, 684–696. Reprinted in Prior, A. N. 1968, ch. 7, 66–77.Google Scholar
Prior, A. N. 1967, Past Present and Future, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Prior, A. N. 1968, Papers on Time and Tense, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Putnam, H., 1975,”Is Semantics Possible,” Mind, Language and Reality, Philosophical Papers, Vol. 2, Cambridge University Press.
Quine, W. V. O., 1934a, “Review of the Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. Vol. 4. The Simplest Mathematics,” Isis 22, 551–553.Google Scholar
Quine, W. V. O. 1934b, “Ontological Remarks on the Propositional Calculus,” Mind 433, 473–476.Google Scholar
Quine, W. V. O. 1943, “Notes on Existence and Necessity,” The Journal of Philosophy 40, 113–127.Google Scholar
Quine, W. V. O. 1947, “The Problem of Interpreting Modal Logic,” The Journal of Symbolic Logic, 12, 43–48.
Quine, W. V. O. 1953a, “Reference and Modality,” From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, second edition 1961, 139–159 (references are to the second edition.).
Quine, W. V. O. 1953b, “Three Grades of Modal Involvement,” The Ways of Paradox, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1976, 158–176.
Quine, W. V. O. 1953c, “Two Dogmas of Empiricism,” From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, second edition 1961, 20–46 (references are to the second edition.).
Quine, W. V. O. 1960, Word and Object, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Quine, W. V. O. 1969, “Reply to Sellars,” in Words and Objections, ed. Davidson, D. and Hintikka, K. J. J., Dordrecht: Reidel, 1969, 337–340.
Quine, W. V. O. 1970, Philosophy of Logic, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Reesor, M., 1965, “Fate and Possibility in Early Stoic Philosophy,” Phoenix 19, 285–297.Google Scholar
Reesor, M. 1978, “Necessity and Fate in Stoic Philosophy” in The Stoics, ed. Rist, John M., University of California Press. 187–202.
Reynolds, A., 2002, Peirce's Scientific Metaphysics, Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
Rijen, J. van, 1989, Aspects of Aristotle's Logic of Modalities, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Rini, A. A. 2011, Aristotle's Modal Proofs: Prior Analytics A8-22 in Predicate Logic, The New Synthese Historical Library 68, Dordrecht: Springer.
Rini, A. A. 2013, “The Birth of Proof: Modality and Deductive Reasoning,” Logic and Its Applications, ed. Lodaya, Kamal, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science LNCS 7750, Springer: Berlin, 34–49.
Rist, J. M., 1969, “Fate and Necessity,” in Stoic Philosophy, ed. Rist, John M., Cambridge University Press. 112–132.
Rist, J. M. 1978, “Necessity and Fate in Stoic Philosophy,” in The Stoics, ed. Rist, John M., University of California Press.
Robers, D., 1973, The Existential Graphs of Charles S. Peirce, The Hague: Mouton.
Rosen, J., and Malink, M., 2012, “A Method of Modal Proof in Aristotle,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 42, 179–261.Google Scholar
Ross, W. D., 1949, Aristotle's Prior and Posterior Analytics: A Revised Text with Introduction and Commentary, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Reprinted with corrections 1957, 1965. Page references to the 1957 printing.
Rückert, H., 2001, “Why Dialogical Logic?,” Essays on Non-classical Logic 1, 165–182.Google Scholar
Russell, B. A. W., 1918, “The Philosophy of Logical Atomism,” in Logic and Knowledge, Ed Marsh, R. C., New York: Capricorn Books, 1955, 177–281.
Russell, B. A. W. 1937. A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz. 2nd ed., London: Allen & Unwin.
Russell, B. A. W. 1976, The Problems of Philosophy, Oxford University Press [1st edition 1912].
Salles, R., 2005, The Stoics on Determinism and Compatibilism, Ashgate.
Sambursky, S., 1959, Physics of the Stoics. Princeton University Press.
Scanlan, M., 1983, “On Finding Compactness in Aristotle,” History and Philosophy of Logic 4(1 and 2), 1–8.Google Scholar
Schafer, K., (forthcoming). “Kant's Conception of Cognition,” In Schafer, K., and Stang, N. The Sensible and Intelligible Worlds: New Essays on Kant's Metaphysics and Epistemology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sedlar, I., 2009, “C. I. Lewis on Possible Worlds,” History and Philosophy of Logic 30, 283–291.Google Scholar
Sedley, D., 1977, “Diodorus Cronus and Hellenistic Philosophy,” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 203, 74–120.Google Scholar
Sedley, D. 1982, ‘The Stoic Criterion of Identity’, Phronesis, 27, 255–75.
Seel, G., 1982, Die Aristotelische Modaltheorie, Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.
Serjeantson, R., 2006, “Proof and persuasion,” in The Cambridge History of History of Science. Vol. III. Early Modern Science, eds Park, Katharine and Daston, Lorraine, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 132–175.
Sextus Empiricus, 1939–1949, Sextus Empiricus, ed.Bury, G., Cambridge, MA: Loeb.
Sharples, R. W., 1983, Alexander of Aphrodisias on Fate, London: Duckworth.
Shehaby, N., 1973, The propositional logic of Avicenna, Dordrecht: Riedel.
Shin, S., 2002, The Iconic Logic of Peirce's Graphs, Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Shin, S., and Hammer, E., 2013, “Peirce's Deductive Logic,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (downloaded September 10, 2014).
Sider, T., 2001, Four Dimensionalism: A Study in Persistence and Ontology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sleigh, R. C., 1990. Leibniz and Arnauld: A Commentary on Their Correspondence, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Smith, R. A. 1989, Aristotle: Prior Analytics, Indianapolis and Cambridge: Hackett.
Smullyan, A. F., 1948, “Modality and Description,” The Journal of Symbolic Logic 13, 31–37.Google Scholar
Sorabji, R., 1980a, “Causation, Laws, and Necessity” in Doubt and Dogmatism, ed.Schofield, M., Burnyeat, M., Barnes, J.. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Sorabji, R. 1980b, Necessity, Cause, and Blame: Perspectives on Aristotle's Theory, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Sorabji, R. 1988, Matter, Space and Motion, Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press.
Sowa, J. F., 2008, “Conceptual Graphs,” Foundations of Artificial Intelligence 3, 213–237.Google Scholar
Sowa, J. F. 2011, “Peirce's Tutorial on Existential Graphs,” Semiotica 186, 347–394.Google Scholar
Stang, N. F., 2010, “Kant's Possibility Proof,” History of Philosophy Quarterly 27, 275–299.Google Scholar
Stang, N. 2011, “Did Kant Conflate the Necessary and the A Priori?Noûs 45, 3, 443–471.Google Scholar
Stang, N. 2012, “Kant on Complete Determination and Infinite Judgment,” British Journal of the History of Philosophy 20(6), 1117–1139.Google Scholar
Stang, N. 2016, Kant's Modal Metaphysics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stang, N. (forthcoming) “Kant's Transcendental Idealism,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Stern, R., 2007, “Peirce, Hegel, and the Category of Secondness,” Inquiry 50(2), 123–155.Google Scholar
Stewart, D., 1805, A Short Statement…, Edinburgh: Creech, William, and Constable, Arch. & Co.
Stjernfelt, F. 2007. Diagrammatology: An Investigation on the Borderlines of Phenomenology, Ontology and Semiotics, Dordrecht: Springer.
Stough, C., 1978, “Stoic Determinism and Moral Responsibility,” The Stoics, ed. Rist, John M., University of California Press, 1978, 203–232.
Street, T., 2002, “An Outline of Avicenna's Syllogistic,” Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 84, 129–160.Google Scholar
Street, T. 2004, “Arabic Logic,” in Handbook of the History of Logic. Vol.1. Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic, ed. Gabbay, Dov M. and Woods, John, Elsevier, 523–596.
Street, T. 2010, “Appendix: Readings of the Subject Term,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 20, 119–124.Google Scholar
Street, T. 2013a, “Arabic and Islamic Philosophy of Language and Logic,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2013 Edition), ed. Edward N. Zalta,
Street, T. 2013b, “Avicenna on the Syllogism,” in Interpreting Avicenna: Critical Essays, ed. Adamson, Peter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 48–70.
Street, T. 2014, “Afḍal al-Dīn al-Khūnajī (d. 1248) on the Conversion of Modal Propositions,” Oriens 42, 454–513.Google Scholar
Striker, G., 1987, “Origins of the Concept of Natural Law,” Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy 2, 79–94.Google Scholar
Striker, G. 1994, “Assertoric vs. Modal Syllogistic,” Ancient Philosophy 14, special issue, 39–51.Google Scholar
Striker, G. 2009, Aristotle's Prior Analytics, Book 1, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Stuart, M., 1996, “Locke's Geometrical Analogy,” History of Philosophy Quarterly 13, 451–467.Google Scholar
Stuart, M. 2013, Locke's Metaphysics, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Thom, P., 1991, “The Two Barbaras,” History and Philosophy of Logic 12, 135–149.
Thom, P. 1996. The Logic of Essentialism. An Interpretation of Aristotle's Modal Syllogistic, Dordrecht: Boston and London: Kluwer.
Thom, P. 2001, Mediaeval Modal Systems, Aldershot: Ashgate.
Thom, P. 2008, “Logic and Metaphysics in Avicenna's Modal Syllogistic,” in The Unity of Science in the Arabic Tradition: science, Logic, Epistemology and Their Interactions, ed. Rahman, Shahid, Street, Tony and Tahiri, Hassan, Dordrecht: Kluwer-Springer, 283–295.
Thom, P. 2010, “Abharī on the Logic of Conjunctive Terms,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 20, 105–117.Google Scholar
Thom, P. 2012, “Syllogisms about Possibility and Necessity in Avicenna and Tusi,” in Insolubles and Consequences, ed. Novaes, Catarina Dutilh and Hjortland, Ole, London: College Publications, 239–248.
Aquinas, Thomas, 1946, Summa contra gentiles, Romae: Apud sedem commissionis Leoninae.
Aquinas, Thomas 1949, Quaestiones Disputatae de Anima, translated by, Rowan, J. P., St. Louis and London: B. Herder Book Co.
Aquinas, Thomas 1952a, 1953, 1954, Questiones Disputatae de Veritate, Questions 1–9 translated by Mulligan, S. J. Robert W., Questions 10–20 translated by McGlynn, S. J. James V., Questions 21–29 translated by Schmidt, S. J. Robert W., Chicago, Henry Regnery.
Aquinas, Thomas 1952b, Quaestiones Disputatae de Potentia Dei, translated by the English Dominican Fathers, Westminster, MD: Newman Press, 1952, reprint of 1932.
Aquinas, Thomas 1962, Expositio libri Peryermeneias, Commentary by Aquinas, Thomas finished by Cajetan, Cardinal, translated by Oesterle, Jean T., Milwaukee: Marquette University Press.
Aquinas, Thomas 1964–1981, Summa theologiae. Latin text and English translation, introductions, notes, appendices, and glossaries, London: Blackfriars in conjunction with Eyre and Spottiswoode.
Van Den Berg, Harmen (1993, “Modal Logics for Conceptual Graphs, in Proceedings of First International Conference on Conceptual Structures, Vol. 699 of LNCS, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
van der Auwera, J., 1996, “Modality: The Three-layered Scalar Square,” Journal of Semantics 13, 181–195.Google Scholar
Waitz, T., 1844, Aristotelis organon graece I, Leipzig: Hahn.
Wallace, W. A., 1992, Galileo's Logic of Discovery and Proof, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Wansing, H., 2014, “Connexive Logic,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL =
Watkins, E., and Fisher, M., 1998, “Kant on the Material Grounds of Possibility,” Review of Metaphysics 52, 369–395.Google Scholar
Watts, I., 1726, Logick, London: John Clark.
Weidemann, H., 2002, Aristoteles: Peri Hermeneias, 2nd ed., Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
Weidemann, H. 2012, “ De interpretatione ,” in The Oxford Handbook of Aristotle, ed.Shields, C., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 81–112.
Whitaker, C.W.A., 1996, Aristotle's De Interpretatione: Contradiction and Dialectic, Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Williamson, T., 2013, Modal Logic as Matphysica, Oxford University Press.
Wittgenstein, L., 1922, Tractatus Logic-Philosophicus. (Translated by Ogden, C. K.), London: Kegan Paul.
Wolter, A. B., 2003, Selected Essays on Scotus and Ockham, Franciscan Institute Publications.
Wood, A., 1984, “Kant's Compatibilism,” in Self and Nature in Kant's Philosophy, ed. Wood, A., Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Yong, P., 2014, “God, Totality and Possibility in Kant's Only Possible Argument ,” Kantian Review, 19(1), 27–51.Google Scholar
Zeman, J. J., 1986, “Peirce's Philosophy of Logic,” Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 22, 1–22.Google Scholar
Zeman, J. J. 1997a, “Peirce and Philo,” Studies in the Logic of Charles Sanders Peirce, ed. Houser, Nathan, Roberts, D. D., and Van Evra, J., Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 402–417.
Zeman, J. J. 1997b, “Peirce's Graphs,” in Conceptual Structures: Fulfilling Peirce's Dream, ed. Lukose, D., et al., Berlin: Springer.
Zeman, J. J. 1997c, “The Tinctures and Implicit Quantification over Worlds, in The Rule of Reason, ed. Brunning, J. and Forster, P., Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 96–119.