Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-vsgnj Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-23T15:59:15.346Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

6 - Emerging Infectious Diseases: Concepts in Preparing for and Responding to the Next Microbial Threat

from PART I - CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND STRATEGIC OVERVIEW

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 August 2011

Kristi L. Koenig
Affiliation:
University of California, Irvine
Carl H. Schultz
Affiliation:
University of California, Irvine
Get access

Summary

INTRODUCTION

Former U.S. Surgeon General William H. Stewart has been attributed with stating in the late 1960s that the time had come to “close the book” on infectious diseases as major threats to public health. Even though the statement's authenticity has been called into question, it is often used to convey the optimism widely expressed at the time by health experts and world leaders. Indeed, it did appear that the age of infectious diseases that had plagued humans for millennia was coming to an end. Vaccines and antibiotics had substantially reduced the incidence and mortality of many diseases. The smallpox eradication campaign was on its way and it was thought that eradication of other diseases (for example tuberculosis and polio) would not be too far behind. Improved food and water safety resulted in less exposure to disease-causing microbes, and the use of pesticides to control arthropod populations had reduced vector-borne diseases. It seemed the battle with the microbial world had been won and it was time to focus efforts and funding on the looming threat of chronic diseases.

Of course, this confidence largely ignored the burden of infectious diseases in the developing world. Four decades later, although great strides have been made to control infectious diseases, microbial pathogens are still major threats to public health throughout the world. The last few decades have ushered in new challenges: “old” pathogens once thought to be controlled by antibiotics have developed multidrug resistance, new pathogens have emerged, and traditional pathogens have appeared in new places.

Type
Chapter
Information
Koenig and Schultz's Disaster Medicine
Comprehensive Principles and Practices
, pp. 75 - 102
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Taylor, LH, Latham, SM, Woolhouse, ME. Risk factors for human disease emergence. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001;356(1411):983–989.Google Scholar
Lashley, FR. Factors contributing to the occurrence of emerging infectious diseases. Biol Res Nurs. 2004;4(4):258–267.Google Scholar
,Institute of Medicine. Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection and Response. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2003.
,Institute of Medicine. Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2002.
Naylor, CD, Chantler, C, Griffiths, S. Learning from SARS in Hong Kong and Toronto. JAMA. 2004;291(20):2483–2487.Google Scholar
Enserink, M. SARS in China. China's missed dance. Science. 2003;301(5631):294–296.Google Scholar
,U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: severe acute respiratory syndrome – Toronto, Canada. MMWR. 2003;52(23):547–550.Google Scholar
,Osterholm MT. How to vaccinate 30,000 people in three days: realities of outbreak management. Pub Health Report. 2001;116 (Suppl. 2):74–78.Google Scholar
Ferguson, NM, Cummings, DAT, Fraser, C, Cajka, JC, Cooley, PC, Burke, DS. Strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic. Nature. 2006;442(7101):448–452.Google Scholar
,U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Severe acute respiratory syndrome – Singapore, 2003. MMWR. 2003;52(18):405–411.
Berg, R. Salmonella Saint Paul: what went wrong? J Environ Health. 2008; 71(5):50–52.Google Scholar
McDonald, LC, Simor, AE, Su, I-J, et al. SARS in healthcare facilities, Toronto and Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(5):777–781.Google Scholar
Peters, CJ, LeDuc, JW. An introduction to Ebola: the virus and the disease. J Infect Dis. 1999;179(Suppl 1):ix–xvi.Google Scholar
Qureshi, K, Gershon, RRM, Sherman, MF, et al. Health care workers' ability and willingness to report to duty during catastrophic disasters. J Urban Health Bull NY Acad Med. 2005;82(3):378–388.Google Scholar
Shepard, CW, Soriano-Gabarro, M, Zell, ER, et al. Antimicrobial postexposure for anthrax: adverse events and adherence. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(10):1124–1132.Google Scholar
Hawryluck, L, Gold, WL, Robinson, S, Pogorski, S, Galea, S, Styra, R. SARS control and psychological effects of quarantine, Toronto, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(7):1206–1212.Google Scholar
O'Toole, T, Mair, M, Inglesby, TV. Shining light on “Dark Winter.” Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34(7):972–983.Google Scholar
Wynia, MK, Gostin, LO. Ethical challenges in preparing for bioterrorism: barriers within the healthcare system. Am J Pub Health. 2004;94(7):1096–1102.Google Scholar
Beecher, DJ. Forensic application of microbiological culture analysis to identify mail intentionally contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72(8):5304–5310.Google Scholar
,Homeland Security. National Response Plan. December 2004. Available at: http://www.dhs.gov/xprepresp/committees/editorial_0566.shtm. Accessed November 12, 2008.
,U.S. House of Representatives. February 15, 2006. A failure of initiatives. Final report of the Select Bipartisan Committee to investigate the preparation for and response to hurricane Katrina. 109th Congress, 2nd Session. Available at: http://katrina.house.gov/full_katrina_report.htm. Accessed November 12, 2008.
,Federal Emergency Management Agency. September 12, 2006. NIMS Alert. NIMS implementation activities for hospitals and healthcare systems. Available at: http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nims/imp_act_hos_hlth.pdf. Accessed November 12, 2008.
Arnold, JL, Dembry, L-M, Tsai, M-C, et al. Recommended modifications and applications of the hospital emergency incident command system for hospital emergency management. Preshosp Disaster Med. 2005;20(5):290–300.Google Scholar
Rubinson, L, Nuzzo, JB, Talmor, DS, O'Toole, T, Kramer, BR, Inglesby, TV, for the ,Working Group on Emergency Mass Critical Care. Augmentation of hospital critical care capacity after bioterrorist attacks or epidemics: recommendations of the Working Group on Emergency Mass Critical Care. Crit Care Med. 2005;33(10):2393–2403.Google Scholar
Fumento, MJ. The threat of an avian flu pandemic is over-hyped. Virtual Mentor. 2006;8(4):265–270.Google Scholar
,U.S. General Accounting Office. West Nile virus outbreak. Lessons for public health preparedness. GAO/HEHS-00–180. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office; 2000.
Chan, PKS. Outbreak of avian influenza (H5N1) virus infection in Hong Kong in 1997. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34(Suppl 2):S58–64.Google Scholar
Chua, KB. Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia. J Clin Virol. 2003;26(3):265–275.Google Scholar
Ksiazek, TG, Erdman, D, Goldsmith, CS, et al. A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(20):1953–1966.Google Scholar
Spellberg, B, Powers, JH, Brass, EP, Miller, LG, Edwards, JE Trends in antimicrobial drug development: implications for the future. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(9):1279–1286.Google Scholar
Stockman, LJ, Bellamy, R, Garner, P. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects. PLoS Med. 2006;3(9):e343.Google Scholar
,American Society for Microbiology. ASM comments on the Biodefense and Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development Act of 2005. November 4, 2005. Available at: www.asm.org/Policy/index.asp?bid=38723. Accessed November 12, 2008.
,Institute of Medicine. Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2004.
Svoboda, T, Henry, B, Shulman, L, et al. Public health measures to control the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome during the outbreak in Toronto. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(23):2351–2361.Google Scholar
,U.S. General Accounting Office. Influenza pandemic. Challenges in preparedness and response. GAO-05–863T. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office; 2005.
Bardi, J. Aftermath of a hypothetical smallpox disaster. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(4):547–551.Google Scholar
Hick, JL, O'Laughlin, DT. Concept of operations for triage of mechanical ventilation in an epidemic. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13(2):223–229.Google Scholar
Burkle, FM. Population-based triage management in response to surge-capacity requirements during a large-scale bioevent disaster. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13(11):1118–1129.Google Scholar
Osterholm, MT. Preparing for the next pandemic. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(18):1839–1842.Google Scholar
,American College of Emergency Physicians. National Strategic Plan for Emergency Department Management of Outbreaks of Novel H1N1 Influenza. Available at: http://acep.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=45781 Accessed on July 12, 2009.
,DHS Office of Inspector General. November 2005. A review of the Top Officials 3 exercise. https://www.dhs.gov/xoig/assets/mgmtrpts/OIG_06-07_Nov05.pdf. Accessed December 5, 2006.
Lobitz, B, Beck, L, Huq, A, et al. Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000;97(4):1438–1443.Google Scholar
Ferguson, NM, Cummings, DA, Cauchemez, S, et al. Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia. Nature. 2005;437(7056):209–214.Google Scholar
Gani, R, Hughes, H, Fleming, D, Griffin, T, Medlock, J, Leach, S. Potential impact of antiviral drug use during influenza pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(9):1355–1362.Google Scholar
Longini, IM, Nizam, A, Xu, S, et al. Containing pandemic influenza at the source. Science. 2005;309(5737):1083–1087.Google Scholar
Medema, JK, Zoellner, YF, Ryan, J, Palache, AM. Modeling pandemic preparedness scenarios: health economic implications of enhanced pandemic vaccine supply. Virus Res. 2004;103(1–2):9–15.Google Scholar
Meltzer, MI, Damon, I, LeDuc, JW, Millar, JD. Modeling potential responses to smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(6):959–969.Google Scholar
Asch, SM, Stoto, M, Mendes, M, et al. A review of instruments assessing public health preparedness. Pub Health Report. 2005;120(5):532–542.Google Scholar
Amadio, JB. Bioterrorism preparedness funds well used at the local level. Am J Pub Health. 2004;95(3):373–374.Google Scholar
Cohen, H.W, Gould, RM, Sidel, VW. The pitfalls of bioterrorism preparedness: the anthrax and smallpox experiences. Am J Pub Health. 2004;94(10):1667–1671.Google Scholar
Wortley, PM, Schwartz, B, Levy, PS, Quick, LM, Evans, B, Burke, B. Healthcare workers who elected not to receive smallpox vaccination. Am J Prevent Med. 2006. 30(3):258–265.Google Scholar
,Institute of Medicine. Ending the War Metaphor: The Changing Agenda for Unraveling the Host-Microbe Relationship. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2006.
King, DA, Peckham, C, Waage, JK, Brownlie, J, Woolhouse, ME. Epidemiology. Infectious diseases: preparing for the future. Science. 2006;313(5792):1392–1393.Google Scholar
Pulendran, B, Ahmed, R. Translating innate immunity into immunological memory: implications for vaccine development. Cell. 2006;124(4):849–863.Google Scholar
Liu, MA, Wahren, B, Karlsson, Hedestam GB. DNA vaccines: recent developments and future possibilities. Hum Gene Ther. 2006;17(11):1051–1061.Google Scholar
Daszak, P, Tabor, GM, Kilpatrick, AM, Epstein, J, Plowright, R. Conservation medicine and a new agenda for emerging diseases. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1026:1–11.Google Scholar
Rogers, DJ, Randolph, SE. Studying the global distribution of infectious diseases using GIS and RS. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2003;1(3):231–237.Google Scholar
Scholthof, KBG. The disease triangle: pathogens, the environment and society. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5(2):152–156.Google Scholar
JW, LeDuc, MA, Barry. SARS, the first pandemic of the 21st century. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Nov. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no11/04-0797_02.htm. Accessed January 13, 2009.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×