Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-7mfl8 Total loading time: 0.171 Render date: 2021-12-07T10:30:26.321Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

7 - Roles of Scientific Knowledge

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 October 2021

Get access

Summary

The systemic analysis of the ISR (Part 2: Analytical Framework) has revealed that scientific knowledge has a privileged place in the 21st century's international system. Without a doubt, STI has been an important factor throughout history, but in the current world order, scientific knowledge has acquired an important role that transforms it into a key resource. For this same reason, the goal of this chapter is to offer a detailed and in-depth explanation of the roles and functions that knowledge has in the field of ISR and the influence that it has on the entire international system.

As a result of the observations throughout the investigation, it is possible to consider at least five main roles that scientific knowledge has in the current context of ISR:

  • – as a resource for economic gain,

  • – as an instrument of power,

  • – as a mechanism of social innovation,

  • – as a democratizing element, and, lastly,

  • – as a military-strategic factor.

Resource for Economic Gain

Nowadays, scientific knowledge is becoming an essential resource for the generation of economic wealth in the current context of the capitalist economic system. Although scientific knowledge has been used in this way in the economic field at least since the Industrial Revolution, what is novel now is its absolutely central and essential role in this new economic stage as a resource to obtain economic benefits.

In recent decades, scientific knowledge has made headway as a primary resource in the capitalist economic system. Since the end of the ‘60s and the beginning of the ‘70s, a new scenery of an international, postindustrial economy started to emerge, in which scientific knowledge became one of the most relevant resources for the generation of economic gain (Drucker, 1969; Bell, 1974). Since the ‘80s, knowledge started to be considered as a key factor for growth, innovation, and the competitiveness of companies, which allowed for a fundamental change in the world economy, going from comparative advantages (David Ricardo, 1817) to the new importance of the competitive advantages(Porter, 1998, 2011). This evolution in the role of knowledge started to consolidate in the ‘90s when transnational companies started to focus their strategies on the more efficient creation, application, and expansion of knowledge.

Type
Chapter
Information
International Scientific Relations
Science, Technology and Innovation in the International System of the 21st Century
, pp. 185 - 198
Publisher: Anthem Press
First published in: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×