Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7479d7b7d-m9pkr Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-11T23:21:47.791Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Part I - Early Indo-European and the Origin of Pastoralism

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 April 2023

Kristian Kristiansen
Göteborgs Universitet, Sweden
Guus Kroonen
Universiteit Leiden
Eske Willerslev
University of Copenhagen
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
The Indo-European Puzzle Revisited
Integrating Archaeology, Genetics, and Linguistics
, pp. 11 - 60
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2023

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Allentoft, M. E., Sikora, M., Sjögren, K. G., Rasmussen, S., Rasmussen, M., Stenderup, J., Damgaard, P. B., Schroeder, H., Ahlström, T., Vinner, L., Malaspinas, A.-S., Margaryan, A., Higham, T., Chivall, D., Lynnerup, N., Harvig, L., Baron, J., Della Casa, P., Dąbrowski, P., Duffy, P. R., Ebel, A. V., Epimakhov, A., Frei, K., Furmanek, M., Gralak, T., Gromov, A., Gronkiewicz, S., Grupe, G., Hajdu, T., Jarysz, R., Khartanovich, V., Khokhlov, A., Kiss, V., Kolář, J., Kriiska, A., Lasak, I., Longhi, C., McGlynn, G., Merkevicius, A., Merkyte, I., Metspalu, M., Mkrtchyan, R., Moiseyev, V., Paja, L., Pálfi, G., Pokutta, D., Pospieszny, Ł., Price, T. D., Saag, L., Sablin, M., Shishlina, N., Smrčka, V., Soenov, V. I., Szeverényi, V., Tóth, G., Trifanova, S. V., Varul, L., Vicze, M., Yepiskoposyan, L., Zhitenev, V., Orlando, L., Sicheritz-Pontén, T., Brunak, S., Nielsen, R., Kristiansen, K., and Willerslev, E.. 2015. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia. Nature 522: 167172.Google Scholar
Anthony, David W. 1986. The “Kurgan culture,” Indo-European origins, and the domestication of the horse: A reconsideration. Current Anthropology 27(4): 291313.Google Scholar
Anthony, David W. 2007. The horse, the wheel, and language: How Bronze Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Anthony, David W. 2016. The Samara Valley Project and the evolution of pastoral economies in the western Eurasian steppes. In: Anthony, David W., Brown, D., Khokhlov, A., Kuznetsov, P., and Mochalov, O. (eds.), A Bronze Age landscape in the Russian steppes: The Samara Valley Project (Monumenta Archaeologica 37), 336. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press.Google Scholar
Anthony, David W. 2021. Early Yamnaya chronology and origins from an archaeological perspective. In: Heyd, Volker, Kulcsár, Gabriella, and Preda-Bălănică, Bianca (eds.), Yamnaya interactions: Proceedings of the international workshop held in Helsinki, 25–26th April 2019. Vol. 2 of The Yamnaya Impact on Prehistoric Europe. Budapest: Archaeolingua.Google Scholar
Anthony, David W., and Brown, D. R.. 2011. The secondary products revolution, horse-riding, and mounted warfare. Journal of World Prehistory 24(2): 131160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anthony, David W., Brown, D. R., and George, C.. 2006. Early horseback riding and warfare: The importance of the magpie around the neck. In Olsen, Sandra, Grant, Susan, Choyke, Alice, and Bartosiewicz, Laszlo (eds.), Horses and humans: The evolution of the equine-human relationship (British Archaeological Reports International Series 1560), 137156. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
Anthony, David W., Brown, D. R., Khokhlov, A., Kuznetsov, P. F., and Mochalov, O. (eds.). 2016. A Bronze Age landscape in the Russian steppes: The Samara Valley Project (Monumenta Archaeologica 37). Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anthony, David W., Khokhlov, A. A., Agapov, S. A., Agapov, D. S., Schulting, R., Olalde, I., and Reich, D.. 2022. The Eneolithic cemetery at Khvalynsk on the Volga River. Praehistorische Zeitschrift 97(1): 22–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anthony, David W., and Ringe, Don. 2015. The Indo-European homeland from linguistic and archaeological perspectives. Annual Review of Linguistics 1: 199219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azzaroli, A. 1980. Venetic horses from Iron Age burials at Padova. Rivista di Scienze Preistoriche 35(1–2): 282308.Google Scholar
Bakker, Jan Albert, Kruk, Janusz, Lanting, A. L., and Milisauskas, Sarunas 1999. The earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles in Europe and the Near East. Antiquity 73: 778790.Google Scholar
Barfield, Thomas. 1989. The perilous frontier. Cambridge: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Belinskii, A., Hansen, S., and Reinhold, S.. 2017. The great kurgan from Nalčik. A preliminary report. In: Tonussi, M. and Rova, E. (eds.), Subartu XXXVIII: At the northern frontier of Near Eastern archaeology: Recent research on Caucasia and Anatolia in the Bronze Age, 1332. Turnhout: Brepols.Google Scholar
Bendrey, R. 2007. New methods for the identification of evidence for bitting on horse remains from archaeological sites. Journal of Archaeological Science 34: 1036–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bendrey, R. 2011. Some like it hot: Environmental determinism and the pastoral economies of the later prehistoric Eurasian steppe. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice 1(8): 116.Google Scholar
Bogaard, Amy, Fochesato, M., and Bowles, S.. 2019. The farming-inequality nexus: New insights from ancient Western Eurasia. Antiquity 93(371): 11291143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borisova, A. V., Krivosheev, M. V., Mimokhod, R. A., and El’tsov, M. V.. 2019. “Sod blocks” in kurgan mounds: Historical and soil features of the technique of tumuli erection. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 24: 122131.Google Scholar
Brown, D. R., and Anthony, David W.. 1998. Bit wear, horseback riding, and the Botai site in Kazakstan. Journal of Archaeological Science 25: 331347.Google Scholar
Bunyatyan, K. 2003. Correlations between agriculture and pastoralism in the North Pontic steppe area during the Bronze Age. In: Levine, M., Renfrew, C., and Boyle, K. (eds.), Prehistoric steppe adaptation and the horse, 269286. Cambridge: McDonald Institute.Google Scholar
Burmeister, Stefan. 2017. Early wagons in Eurasia: Disentangling an enigmatic innovation. In: Stockhammer, Philipp W. and Maran, Joseph (eds.), Appropriating innovations: Entangled knowledge in Eurasia 5000–1500 BCE, 6977. Oxford: Oxbow Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chang, Claudia. 2018. Rethinking prehistoric Central Asia: Shepherds, farmers, and nomads. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Chernykh, E. N. 1992. Ancient metallurgy in the USSR. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Chernykh, E. N. 2004. Kargaly: The largest and most ancient metallurgical complex on the border of Europe and Asia. In: Linduff, Katheryn M. (ed.), Metallurgy in ancient eastern Eurasia from the Urals to the Yellow River (Chinese Studies 31), 223279. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen.Google Scholar
Childe, V. G. 1958. The prehistory of European society. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
Clayton, Hilary M., and Lee, R.. 1984. A fluoroscopic study of the position and action of the jointed snaffle bit in the horse’s mouth. Equine Veterinary Science 4(5): 193196.Google Scholar
Clutton-Brock, Juliet. 1974. The Buhen horse. Journal of Archaeological Science 1: 89100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cook, W. R. 2011. Damage by the bit to the equine interdental space. Equine Veterinary Education 23(7): 355360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dergachev, Valentin A. 2007. O Skipetrakh, O Loshadyakh, O Voine: Etiudy v zashchitu migrationnoi konseptsii M. Gimbutas. Saint Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya.Google Scholar
Di Cosmo, Nicola 1994. Ancient Inner Asian nomads: Their economic basis and its significance in Chinese history. Journal of Asian Studies 53(4): 10921126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diaz del Río, P., García, P. L., López Sáez, J. A., Martina Navarette, M. I., Rodrígues Alcalde, A. L., Rovira-Llorens, S., Vicent García, J. M., and de Zavala Morencos, I.. 2006. Understanding the productive economy during the Bronze Age through archaeometallurgical and paleo-environmental research at Kargaly. In: Peterson, D. L., Popova, L. M., and Smith, A. T. (eds.), Beyond the steppe and the sown: Proceedings of the 2002 University of Chicago Conference on Eurasian Archaeology, 343357. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Doumani, Paula N., Frachetti, M. D., Beardmore, R., Schmaus, T. M., Spengler, R. N., and Mar’yashev, A. N.. 2015. Burial ritual, agriculture, and craft production among Bronze Age pastoralists at Tasbas (Kazakhstan). Archaeological Research in Asia 1/2: 1732.Google Scholar
Dovchenko, N. D., and Rychkov, N. A.. 1988. K probleme sotsial’noi stratigrafikatsii plemen Yamnoi kul’turno-istoricheskoi obshchnosti. In Novye Pamyatniki Yamnoi Kul’tury Stepnoi Zony Ukrainy, 2740. Kiev: Naukova Dumka.Google Scholar
Dremov, I. I., and Yudin, A. I., 1992. Drevneishie podkurgannye zakhoroneniya stepnogo zaVolzh’ya. Rossiskaya Arkheologiya 4: 1831.Google Scholar
Ewers, John C. 1955. The horse in Blackfoot Indian culture. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
Fansa, M., and Burmeister, S. (eds.). 2004. Rad und Wagen: Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa (Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland Beiheft 40). Mainz: Philipp von Zabern.Google Scholar
Frachetti, Michael D. 2008. Pastoralist landscapes and social interaction in Bronze Age Eurasia. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frachetti, Michael D. 2011. Multiregional emergence of mobile pastoralism and nonuniform institutional complexity across Eurasia. Current Anthropology 53(1): 138.Google Scholar
Frînculeasa, Alin, Preda, Bianca, and Heyd, Volker. 2015. Pit-Graves, Yamnaya and kurgans along the Lower Danube: Disentangling IVth and IIIrd millennium BC burial customs, equipment and chronology. Praehistorische Zeitschrift 90(1/2): 169.Google Scholar
Furholt, Martin. 2014. Upending a “totality”: Re-evaluating Corded Ware variability in Late Neolithic Europe. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 80: 6786.Google Scholar
Furholt, Martin. 2018. Massive migrations? The impact of recent aDNA studies on our view of third millennium Europe. European Journal of Archaeology 21(2): 159191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaunitz, C., Fages, A., Hanghøj, K., Albrechtsen, A., Khan, N., Schubert, M., Seguin-Orlando, A., Owens, I. J., Felkel, S., Bignon-Lau, O., de Barros Damgaard, P., Mittnik, A., Mohaseb, A. F., Davoudi, H., Alquraishi, S., Alfarhan, A. H., Al-Rasheid, K. A. S., Crubézy, E., Benecke, N., Olsen, Sandra, Brown, D., Anthony, D., Massy, K., Pitulko, V., Kasparov, A., Brem, G., Hofreiter, M., Mukhtarova, G., Baimukhanov, N., Lõugas, L., Onar, V., Stockhammer, P. W., Krause, J., Boldgiv, B., Undrakhbold, S., Erdenebaatar, D., Lepetz, S., Mashkour, M., Ludwig, A., Wallner, B., Merz, V., Merz, I., Zaibert, V., Willerslev, E., Librado, P., Outram, A. K., and Orlando, Ludovic. 2018. Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski’s horses. Science 360(6384): 111114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gei, A. N. 2000. Novotitorovskaya Kul’tura. Moscow: Institut Arkheologii.Google Scholar
Gimbutas, Marija. 1956. The prehistory of Eastern Europe (American School of Prehistoric Research Bulletin 20). Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum.Google Scholar
Gimbutas, Marija, 1970. Proto-Indo-European culture: The Kurgan culture during the fifth, fourth, and third millennia B.C. In: Cardona, George, Hoenigswald, Henry, and Senn, Alfred (eds.), Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans, 155198. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gimbutas, Marija. 1977. The first wave of European steppe pastoralists into Copper Age Europe. Journal of Indo-European Studies 5(4): 277338.Google Scholar
Gorodtsov, V. A. 1907. Rezul’taty arkheologichekikh issledovanii v Bakhmutskom uezdie Ekaterinoslavskoi gubernii 1905g. Trudy XIII A.S. 1: 211365. Moscow: State Historical Museum.Google Scholar
Haak, Wolfgang, Lazaridis, I., Patterson, N., Rohland, N., Mallick, S., Llamas, B., Brandt, G., Nordenfelt, S., Harney, E., Stewardson, K.,Fu, Q., Mittnik, A., Bánffy, E., Economou, C., Francken, M., Friederich, S., Pena, R. G., Hallgren, F., Khartanovich, V., Khokhlov, A., Kunst, M., Kuznetsov, P., Meller, H., Mochalov, O., Moiseyev, V., Nicklisch, N., Pichler, S. L., Risch, R., Guerra, M. A. R., Roth, C., Szécsényi-Nagy, A., Wahl, J., Meyer, M., Krause, J., Brown, D., Anthony, D., Cooper, A., Alt, K. W., and Reich, D.. 2015. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522(7555): 207211.Google Scholar
Hanks, Bryan, Miller, Alicia V., Judda, M., Epimakhovd, A., Razhevf, D., and Privat, Karen. 2018. Bronze Age diet and economy: New stable isotope data from the Central Eurasian steppes (2100–1700 BC). Journal of Archaeological Science 97: 1425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansen, Sven 2013. The birth of the hero. The emergence of a social type in the 4th millennium BC. In: Starnini, Elisabetta (ed.), Unconformist archaeology: Papers in honour of Paolo Biagi, 101112. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
Häusler, A. 2003. Nomaden, Indogermanen, Invasionen. Zur Entstehung eines Mythos (Orientwissenschaftliche Hefte 5). Halle: Orientwissenschaftliches Zentrum der Martin-Luther-Universität.Google Scholar
Hämäläinen, Pekka. 2008. The Comanche Empire. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Heyd, Volker. 2013. Europe at the dawn of the Bronze Age. In: Heyd, Volker, Kulcsár, G., and Szeverényi, V. (ed.), Transitions to the Bronze Age: Interregional interaction and socio-cultural change in the third millennium BC Carpathian Basin and neighbouring regions, 966. Budapest: Archaeolingua.Google Scholar
Ivanova, Svitlana V. 2006. Yamnaya kul’turno-istoricheskaya obshchnost’: problemy formirovaniya v svete radiouglerodnogo datirovaniya. Rossisskaya Arkheologiya 2: 113120.Google Scholar
Ivanova, Svitlana V. 2010. Prirodnye resursy i ekonomika drevnikh obshchestv. Stratum plus 2: 4997.Google Scholar
Ivanova, Svitlana. 2013. Connections between the Budzhak culture and Central European groups of the Corded Ware culture. Baltic-Pontic Studies 18: 86120.Google Scholar
Ivanova, S. V., Nikitin, A. G., and Kiusak, D. V.. 2018. Mayatnikov’ye migratsii v tsirkum-Pontcheskoi i tsentral’noi Evrope v epokhu paleometalla i problema genesis a Yamnoi kul’tury. Arkheologia Davnya Istoriya Ukraini 1(26): 101146.Google Scholar
Ivanova, Svitlana V., and Tsimidanov, V. V.. 1993. O sotsiologicheskoi interpretatsii pogrebenii povozkami Yamnoi kul’turno-istoricheskoi obshchnosti. Arkheologicheskii Al’manakh 2: 2334.Google Scholar
Kaiser, Elke 2010. Der Übergang zur Rinderzucht im nördlichen Schwarzmeerraum. Godišnjak 39: 2334.Google Scholar
Kaiser, Elke, Tuboltsev, O., Benecke, N., Evershed, R. P., Hochmuth, M., Mileto, S., and Riesenberg, M.. 2020. Der Fundplatz Generalka 2 der Jamnaja-Kultur in der Südukraine. Archäologische und naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen. Praehistorische Zeitschrift: aop.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelly, R. L., Poyer, L., and Tucker, B.. 2005. An ethnoarchaeological study of mobility, architectural investment, and food sharing among Madagascar’s Mikea. American Anthropologist 107: 403416.Google Scholar
Kent, Susan, and Vierich, Helga. 1989. The myth of ecological determinism: Anticipated mobility and site spatial organization. In: Kent, Susan (ed.), Farmers as hunters, 96130. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Khazanov, Anatoly. 1994. Nomads and the outside world. Rev. ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. First published 1984.Google Scholar
Khokhlov, A. A. 2010. Naselenie Khvalynskoi Eneoliticheskoi kul’tury po antropologicheckii materialam gruntovykh mogilnikov Khvalynsk I, Khvalynsk II, Khokhlov Bugor. In: Agapov, S. A. (ed.), Khvalynskie Eneoliticheskie Mogil’niki i Khvalynskaya Eneoliticheskaya Kul’tura: Issledovanija materialov, 407517. Samara: SROO IEKA “Povolzh’e.Google Scholar
Kiashko, A. V. 2017. Kul’turnei bronzy poseleniya Razdorskoe I na Nizhnem Donu. In: Bokcharyev, V. S. and Alekshin, V. A. (ed.), Vneshnie I Vnutrennie Svyazi Stepnykh (Skorovodcheskikh) Kul’tur Vostochnoi Evropy v Eneolite I Bronzovom Veke (V-II tys. do n. e.), 8488. Saint Petersburg.Google Scholar
Klochko, V. I. 2019. Metalevi sokiri rannogo etapu Yamnoi kulturi Ukraini. Arkheologiya i Davnya Istoriya Ukraini 2(31): 6977.Google Scholar
Knipper, Corina, Reinhold, S., Gresky, J., Berezina, N., Gerling, C., Pichler, S. L., Buzhilova, A. P., Kantorovich, A. R., Maslov, V. E., Petrenko, V. G., Lyakhov, S. V., Kalmykov, A. A., Belinskiy, A. B., Hansen, S., Alt, K. W.. 2020. Diet and subsistence in Bronze Age pastoral communities from the southern Russian steppes and the North Caucasus. PLoS ONE 15(10): e0239861.Google Scholar
Kohl, Philip K. 2007. The making of Bronze Age Eurasia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kohl, Philip L., and Trifonov, V.. 2014. The prehistory of the Caucasus: Internal developments and external interactions. In: Renfrew, Colin (ed.), Cambridge World Prehistory, 15711595. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Korenevskii, S. N. 1980. O metallicheskikh veshchakh i Utyevskogo mogil’nika. In: Pryakhin, A. D. (ed.), Arkheologiya Vostochno-Evropeiskoi Lesostepi, 5966. Voronezh: Vorenezhskogo Universiteta.Google Scholar
Korenevskii, S. N. 2016. Problemnye situatsii “post-Ubaidskogo perioda” v Predkavkaz’e (4500–3500 let do n.è.). Stratum plus 2: 126.Google Scholar
Korenevskii, S. N. 2020. Mif o dreve zhizni na poroge tsilivizatsii po dannym vaz iz Hafadzhi, Djirofta I nekropol Ura. In: Kashuba, M. T., Reinhold, S. E., and Piotrovskii, Y. Y. (ed.), Der Kaukasus zwischen Osteuropa und Vorderem Orient in der Bronze- und Eisenzeit: Dialog der Kulturen (Kultur des Dialoges, Archäologie in Iran und Turan 19), 199214. Berlin: Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Eurasien-Abteilung and Dietrich Reimer.Google Scholar
Korobkova, G. F., and Shaposhnikova, O. G.. 2005. Mikhailovka: Etalonni Pamiatnik Drevnei Yamnoi Kul’tury. Saint Petersburg: Institut Istorii Material’noi Kul’tury RAN.Google Scholar
Koryakova, Ludmila, and Epimakhov, Andrie. 2007. The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kotova, Nadezhda, and Spitsyna, L. A. 2003. Radiocarbon chronology of the middle layer of the Mikhailivka settlement. Baltic-Pontic Studies 12: 121131.Google Scholar
Kristiansen, Kristian, and Larsson, T. B.. 2005. The rise of Bronze Age society: Travels, transmissions, and transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kuzmina, Elena E. 2008. The prehistory of the Silk Road. Edited by Mair, V.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
Kuznetsov, P. F. 2013. Datirovka pamyatnika u Repina Khutora i khronologiya kul’turno-rodstvenniykh materialov epokhi Rannei Bronzy stepnoi zony vostochnoi Evropy. Rossiiskaya Arkheologiya 1: 1321.Google Scholar
Kyselý, R., and Peške, L.. 2016. Horse size and domestication: Early equid bones from the Czech Republic in the European context. Anthropozoologica 51(1): 1539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lagodovskaya, E. F., Shaposhnikova, O. G., and Makarevich, M. L.. 1959. Osnovnye itogi issledovaniya Mikhailovskogo poseleniya. Kratkie Soobshcheniya Institut Arkheologii 9: 2128.Google Scholar
Lagodovskaya, E. F., Shaposhnikova, O. G., and Makarevich, M. L.. 1962. Mikhailovka Poseleniye. Kiev: Naukova Dumka.Google Scholar
Lattimore, Owen. 1988. Inner Asian frontiers of China. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. First published 1940 by the American Geographical Society (New York).Google Scholar
Lebedeva, E. Y. 2005. Archaeobotany and study of the Bronze Age agriculture in Eastern Europe. Opus: Mezhdistsiplinarnye Issledovaniya v Arkheologii (Moscow) 4: 5068.Google Scholar
Librado, P., Khan, N., Fages, A., Kuslyi, M., Suchan, T., Tonasso-Calvière, L., Schiavinato, S., Alioglu, D., Fromentier, A., Perdereau, A., Aury, J., Gaunitz, C., Chauvey, L., Seguin-Orlando, A., Der Sarkissian, C., Southon, J., Shapiro, B., Alquraishi, S., Alfarhan, A. H., Al-Rasheid, K. A. S., Seregely, T., Klassen, L., Iversen, R., Bignon-Lau, O., Bodu, P., Olive, M., Castel, J-C., Alvarez, N., Germonpré, M., Wilczyński, J., Rannamäe, E., Saarma, U., Lōugas, L., Kyselý, R., Peške, L., Balasescu, A., Gerber, D., Kulcsár, G., Gál, E., Bendrey, R., Allentoft, M., Shephard, H., Tomadini, N., Grouard, S., Pitulko, V., Brem, G., Wallner, B., Keller, M., Kitagawa, K., Bessudnov, A., Taylor, W., Bayarsaikhan, J., Erdenebaatar, D., Kubatbeek, T., Mijiddorj, E., Boldgiv, B., Tsagaan, T., Pruvost, M., Olsen, S., Makarewicz, C., Valenzuela Lamas, S., Albizuri, S., Espinet, A. N., Garrido, J. L., Kotova, N., Pryor, A., Crabtree, P., Zhumatayev, R., Kuznetsova, T., Lordkipanize, D., Marzullo, M., Prato, O., Bagnasco, G., Clavel, B., Lepetz, S., Davoudi, H., Mashkour, M., Stockhammer, P., Krause, J., Haak, W., Morales, A., Benecke, N., Hofreiter, M., Ludwig, A., Graphodatsky, A., Kiryushin, K. Yu., Baryshnikov, G., Petrova, E., Sablin, M., Tishkin, A., Ananyevskaya, E., Logvin, A., Logvin, V., Kalieva, S., Kukushkin, I., Merz, I., Merz, V., Sakenov, S., Shevnina, I., Varfolomeyev, V., Zaibert, V., Arbuckle, B., Reinhold, S., Hansen, S., Roslyakova, N., Kosintsev, P., Kuznetsov, P., Anthony, D., Kroonen, G. J., Kristiansen, K., Wincker, P., Outram, A., and Orlando, Ludovic. 2021. Genomic origins and spread of domestic horses from the Bronze Age Pontic-Caspian steppes. Nature 598: 634640.Google Scholar
Mallory, J. P. 1977. The chronology of the early Kurgan tradition (part two). Journal of Indo-European Studies 5(4): 339368.Google Scholar
Manzura, Igor. 2005. Steps to the steppe: Or, how the North Pontic region was colonized. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 24(4): 313338.Google Scholar
Mathieson, Iain, Lazaridis, I., Rohland, N., Mallick, S., Patterson, N., Roodenberg, S. A., Harney, E., Stewardson, K., Fernandes, D., Novak, M., Sirak, K., Gamba, C., Jones, E. R., Llamas, B., Dryomov, S., Pickrell, J., Luís Arsuaga, J., Bermúdez de Castro, J. M., Carbonell, E., Gerritsen, F., Khokhlov, A., Kuznetsov, P., Lozano, M., Meller, H., Mochalov, O., Moiseyev, V., Rojo Guerra, M. A., Roodenberg, J., Vergès, J. M., Krause, J., Cooper, A., Alt, K. W., Brown, D., Anthony, D., Lalueza-Fox, C., Haak, W., Pinhasi, R., and Reich, David. 2015. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians. Nature 528: 499503.Google Scholar
Merpert, N. I. 1974. Drevneishie Skotovody Volzhsko-Uralskogo Mezhdurechya. Moscow: Nauka.Google Scholar
Merpert, N. I. 1977. Comments on “The chronology of the early Kurgan tradition.” Journal of Indo-European Studies 5(4): 373378.Google Scholar
Mileto, S., Kaiser, E., Rassamakin, Y., and Evershed, R. P.. 2018. New insights into the subsistence economy of the Eneolithic Dereivka culture of the Ukrainian North-Pontic region through lipid residue analysis of pottery vessels. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 13: 6774.Google Scholar
Morgunova, Nina L. 2014. Pri-Uralskaya Gruppa Pamyatnikov v Sisteme Volzhsko-Ural’skogo Varianta Yamnoi Kul’turno-Istoricheskoi Oblasti. Orenburg: OGPU.Google Scholar
Morgunova, Nina L. 2015. Pottery from the Volga area in the Samara and South Urals region from Eneolithic to Early Bronze Age. Documenta Praehistorica 42: 311319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morgunova, Nina L., and Khokhlova, O. S.. 2013. Chronology and periodization of the Pit-Grave culture in the region between the Volga and Ural Rivers based on radiocarbon dating and paleopedological research. Radiocarbon 55(2/3): 12861296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Motuzaite-Matuzeviciute, Giedre, Telizhenko, S., and Jones, M. K. 2012. Archaeobotanical investigation of two Scythian-Sarmatian period pits in eastern Ukraine: Implications for floodplain cereal cultivation. Journal of Field Archaeology 37(1): 5161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mulder, Monique B., Fazzio, I., Irons, W., McElreath, R. L., Bowles, S., Bell, A., Hertz, T., and Hazzah, L.. 2010. Pastoralism and wealth inequality: Revisiting an old question. Current Anthropology 51(1):3548.Google Scholar
Murphy, E. M. 2003. Iron Age archaeology and trauma from Aymyrlyg, South Siberia (BAR International Series 1152). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
Murphy, E. M., and Khokhlov, A. A.. 2016. A bioarchaeological study of prehistoric populations from the Volga region. In: Anthony, D. W. (ed.), A Bronze Age landscape in the Russian steppes: The Samara Valley Project (Monumenta Archaeologica 37), 147214. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press.Google Scholar
Narasimhan, Vagheesh M., Patterson, N., Moorjani, P., Lazaridis, I., Lipson, M., Mallick, S., Rohland, N., Bernardos, R., Kim, A. M., Nakatsuka, N., Olalde, I., Coppa, A., Mallory, J., Moiseyev, V., Monge, J., Olivieri, L. M., Adamski, N., Broomandkhoshbacht, N., Candilio, F., Cheronet, O., Culleton, B. J., Ferry, M., Fernandes, D., Gamarra, B., Gaudio, D., Hajdinjak, M., Harney, É., Harper, T. K., Keating, D., Lawson, A. M., Michel1, M., Novak, M., Oppenheimer, J., Rai, N., Sirak, K., Slon, V., Stewardson, K., Zhang, Z., Akhatov, G., Bagashev, A. N., Baitanayev, B., Bonora, G. L., Chikisheva, T., Derevianko, A., Dmitry, E., Douka, K., Dubova, N., Epimakhov, A., Freilich, S., Fuller, D., Goryachev, A., Gromov, A., Hanks, B., Judd, M., Kazizov, E., Khokhlov, A., Kitov, E., Kupriyanova, E., Kuznetsov, P., Luiselli, D., Maksudov, F., Meiklejohn, C., Merrett, D., Micheli, R., Mochalov, O., Muhammed, Z., Mustafokulov, S., Nayak, A., Petrovna, R. M., Pettener, D., Potts, R., Razhev, D., Sarno, S., Sikhymbaeva, K., Slepchenko, S. M., Stepanova, N., Svyatko, S., Vasilyev, S., Vidale, M., Voyakin, D., Yermolayeva, A., Zubova, A., Shinde, V. S., Lalueza-Fox, C., Meyer, M., Anthony, D., Boivin, N., Thangaraj, K., Kennett, D. J., Frachetti, M., Pinhasi, R., and Reich, David. 2018. The formation of human populations in South and Central Asia. Science 365: 6457.Google Scholar
Nechitailo, A. P. 1991. Svyazi Naseleniya Stepnoi Ukrainy i Severnogo Kavkaza v Epokhy Bronzy. Kiev: Dumka.Google Scholar
Nedashkovskii, L. S. 2010. Economy of the Golden Horde population. Anthropology and Archeology of Eurasia 48(2): 3550.Google Scholar
Olalde, Iñigo, Brace, S., Allentoft, M. E., Armit, I., Kristiansen, K., Rohland, N., Mallick, S., Booth, T., Szécsényi-Nagy, A., Mittnik, A., Altena, E., Lipson, M., Lazaridis, I., Patterson, N., Broomandkhoshbacht, N., Diekmann, Y., Faltyskova, Z., Fernandes, D., Ferry, M., Harney, E., de Knijff, P., Michel, M., Oppenheimer, J., Stewardson, K., Barclay, A., Alt, K. W., Avilés Fernández, A., Bánffy, E., Bernabò-Brea, M., Billoin, D., Blasco, C., Bonsall, C., Bonsall, L., Allen, T., Büster, L., Carver, S., Castells Navarro, L., Craig, O. E., Cook, G. T., Cunliffe, B., Denaire, A., Dinwiddy, K. E., Dodwell, N., Ernée, M., Evans, C., Kuchařík, M., Farré, J. F., Fokkens, H., Fowler, C., Gazenbeek, M., Garrido Pena, R., Haber-Uriarte, M., Haduch, E., Hey, G., Jowett, N., Knowles, T., Massy, K., Pfrengle, S., Lefranc, P., Lemercier, O., Lefebvre, A., Lomba Maurandi, J., Majó, T., McKinley, J. I., McSweeney, K., Gusztáv, M. B., Modi, A., Kulcsár, G., Kiss, V., Czene, A., Patay, R., Endrődi, A., Köhler, K., Hajdu, T., Luís Cardoso, J., Liesau, C., Pearson, M. P., Włodarczak, P., Price, T. D., Prieto, P., Rey, P.-J., Ríos, P., Risch, R., Rojo Guerra, M. A., Schmitt, A., Serralongue, J., Silva, A. M., Smrčka, V., Vergnaud, L., Zilhão, J., Caramelli, D., Higham, T., Heyd, V., Sheridan, A., Sjögren, K.-G., Thomas, M. G., Stockhammer, P. W., Pinhasi, R., Krause, J., Haak, W., Barnes, I., Lalueza-Fox, C., and Reich, D.. 2018. The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe. Nature 555: 190196.Google Scholar
Outram, A. K., Stear, N. A., Bendrey, R., Olsen, S., Kasparov, A., Zaibert, V., Thorpe, N., and Evershed, R. P.. 2009. The earliest horse harnessing and milking. Science 323: 1332–35.Google Scholar
Pashkevich, G. O. 1992. Do rekonstruktsii asortmentu kul’turnikh roslin epokhi Neolitu- Bronzi na territorii Ukraini. In: Pan’kov, S. V. and Voznesens’ka, G. O. (ed.), Starodavne Vibornitstvo na Teritorii Ukraini, 179194. Kiev: Naukovo Dumka.Google Scholar
Pashkevich, G. O. 2003. Paleoethnobotanical evidence of agriculture in the steppe and the forest-steppe of east Europe in the Late Neolithic and the Bronze Age. In: Levine, Marsha, Renfrew, Colin, and Boyle, Katie (ed.), Prehistoric steppe adaptation and the horse, 287297. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
Piggott, Stuart. 1983. The earliest wheeled transport: From the Atlantic Coast to the Caspian Sea. New York: Cornell University PressGoogle Scholar
Rassamakin, Y. 1999. The Eneolithic of the Black Sea steppe: Dynamics of cultural and economic development 4500–2300 BC. In: Marsha Levine, Y. Rassamakin, A. Kislenko, and Tatarintseva, N. (ed.), Late prehistoric exploitation of the Eurasian steppe, 59182. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
Rassamakin, Y. 2013. From the Late Eneolithic period to the Early Bronze Age in the Black Sea steppe: What is the Pit Grave culture (late fourth to mid-third millennium BC)? In: Heyd, Volker,Kulcsár, G., and Szeverényi, V. (ed.), Transitions to the Bronze Age: Interregional interaction and socio-cultural change in the third millennium BC Carpathian Basin and neighbouring regions, 113138. Budapest: Archaeolingua.Google Scholar
Reich, David. 2018. Who we are and how we got here: Ancient DNA and the new science of the human past. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
Reinhold, Sabine, Gresky, J., Berezina, N., Kantorovich, A. R., Knipper, C., Maslov, V. E., Petrenko, V. G., Alt, K. W., and Belinsky, Andrew B.. 2017. Contextualising innovation. Cattle owners and wagon drivers in the North Caucasus and beyond. In: Stockhammer, Philipp and Maran, Joseph (ed.), Appropriating innovations: Entangled knowledge in Eurasia, 5000–1500 BCE, 7897. Oxford: Oxbow.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenstock, Eva, Masson, A., and Zich, B.. 2019. Moraines, megaliths and moo: Putting the prehistoric tractor to work. In: Müller, J., Hinz, M., and Wunderlich, M. (ed.), Megaliths – Societies – Landscapes: Early monumentality and social differentiation in Neolithic Europe, vol. 3, 10991110. Bonn: Dr. Rudolf Habelt GmbH.Google Scholar
Rühl, L., Herbig, C., and Stobbe, A.. 2015. Archaeobotanical analysis of plant use at Kamennyi Ambar, a Bronze Age fortified settlement of the Sintashta culture in the southern Trans-Urals steppe, Russia. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 24(3): 413426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryndina, N. V., and Degtyareva, A. D.. 2018. Tsvetoi metal Yamnoi kulturno-istoricheskoi oblasti iz pamyatnikov Ukrainy: morfologiya I tekhnologiya izgotovleniya. Stratum plus 2: 317346.Google Scholar
Sanson, G. D., Kerr, S. A., and Gross, K. A.. 2007. Do silica phytoliths really wear mammalian teeth? Journal of Archaeological Science 34: 526531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schulting, R. J., and Richards, Michael P.. 2016. Stable isotope analysis of Neolithic to Late Bronze Age populations in the Samara Valley. In: Anthony, David W., Brown, Dorcas, Khokhlov, Aleksandr, Kuznetsov, Pavel, and Mochalov, Oleg (ed.), A Bronze Age landscape in the Russian steppes: The Samara Valley Project (Monumenta Archaeologica 37), 127147. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute Press, UCLA.Google Scholar
Secoy, R. F. 1953. Changing military patterns of the Great Plains Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
Sherratt, A. G. 1983. The secondary products revolution of animals in the Old World. World Archaeology 15: 90104.Google Scholar
Sherratt, A. G. 2006. La traction animale et la transformation de l’Europe néolithique. In: Pétrequin, P., Arbogast, R.-M., Pétrequin, A.-M., van Willigen, S., and Bailly, M. (ed.), Premiers chariots, premiers araires. La diffusion de la traction animale en Europe pendant les IVe et IIIe millénaires avant notre ère (CRA Monograph 29), 329–60. Paris: CNRS.Google Scholar
Shevchenko, A. I. 1957. Fauna poseleniia epokhi bronzy v s. Mikhailovke na nizhnem Dnepre. Kratkie Soobshcheniya Institut Arkheologii (Kiev) 7: 3637.Google Scholar
Shilov, V. P. 1975. Modeli skotovodcheskikh khozyaistv stepnykh oblastei Evrazii v epokhu eneolita i rannego bronzovogo veka. Sovietskaya Arkheologiya 1: 515.Google Scholar
Shilov, V. P. 1985. Problemy proiskhozhdeniya kochevogo skotovodstva v vostochnoi Evrope. In: Maksimov, K. N. (ed.), Drevnosti Kalmykii, 2333. Elista: Kalmytskii Nauchno-Issledovatel’skii Institut Istorii, Filogii i Ekonomiki.Google Scholar
Shishlina, N. I. 2008. Reconstruction of the Bronze Age of the Caspian steppes: Life styles and life ways of pastoral nomads (British Archaeological Reports International Series 1876). Oxford: Archaeopess.Google Scholar
Shishlina, N. I., Zazovskaya, E. P., van der Plicht, J., Hedges, R. E. M., Sevastyanov, V. S., and Chichagova, O. A.. 2009. Paleoecology, subsistence, and 14C chronology of the Eurasian Caspian steppe Bronze Age. Radiocarbon 51(2): 481499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shnirelman, Victor A. 1980. Proiskhozhdeni’e Skotovodstva. Moscow: Nauka.Google Scholar
Shnirelman, Victor, A., 1992. The emergence of food-producing economy in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of Eastern Europe. Journal of Indo-European Studies 20: 123–43.Google Scholar
Spengler, Robert N., Ventresca Miller, A., Schmaus, T., Motuzaite-Matuzeviciute, G., Miller, B. K., Wilkin, S., Taylor, W. T. T., Li, Y., Roberts, P., and Boivin, Nicole. 2021. An imagined past? Nomadic narratives in Central Asian archaeology. Current Anthropology 62(3): 251286.Google Scholar
Sulimirski, T. 1970. Prehistoric Russia: An outline. London: John Baker.Google Scholar
Taylor, W. T. T., and Isabelle Barrón‑Ortiz, C.. 2021. Rethinking the evidence for early horse domestication at Botai. Nature Scientific Reports 11: 7440.Google Scholar
Telegin, D. Y., Pustalov, Sergei Z., and Kovalyukh, N. N.. 2003. Relative and absolute chronology of Yamnaya and Catacomb monuments: The issue of co-existence. Baltic-Pontic Studies 12: 132184.Google Scholar
Trautmann, M., Frînculeasa, A., Preda-Bălănică, B., Petruneac, M., Focşǎneanu, M., Alexandrov, S., Atanassova, N., Włodarczak, P., Włodarczak, P., Podsiadło, M., Dani, J., Évinger, S., Bereczki, Z., Hajdu, T., Băjenaru, R., Ioniță, A., Măgureanu, A., Măgureanu, D., Popescu, A., Sârbu, D., Vasile, G., Anthony, D., Heyd, V.. 2022. First Bio-Anthropological Evidence for Yamnaya Horsemanship. Science Advances (In review.)Google Scholar
Tsalkin, V. I. 1970. Drevneishie Domashnie Zhivotnye Vostochnoi Evropy. Moscow: Nauka.Google Scholar
Tuboltsev, Oleg V., and Radchenko, S. B.. 2018. Generalka 2 “causewayed enclosures”: primery otrazheniya polyarnogo mirovzzreniya drevnego naseleniya Evropy. Stratum plus 2: 119148.Google Scholar
Vybornov, A. A., Kosintsev, P. A., Kulkova, M. A., Doga, N. S., and Platonov, V. I.. 2019. Vremya poyavleniya proizvodyashego khozyaistva v Nizhnem PoVolzh’e. Stratum plus 2: 359368.Google Scholar
Vybornov, A. A., Kulkova, M., Kosintsev, P., Platonov, V., Platonova, S., Philippsen, B., and Nesterova, L.. 2018. Diet and chronology of the Neolithic-Eneolithic cultures (from 6500 to 4700 cal BC) in the lower Volga basin. Radiocarbon 60(5): 114.Google Scholar
Wang, C.-C., Reinhold, S., Kalmykov, A., Wissgott, A., Brandt, G., Jeong, C., Cheronet, O., Ferry, M., Harney, E., Keating, D., Mallick, S., Rohland, N., Stewardson, K., Kantorovich, A. R., Maslov, V. E., Petrenko, V. G., Erlikh, V. R., Atabiev, B. Ch., Magomedov, R. G., Kohl, P. L., Alt, K. W., Pichler, S. L., Gerling, C., Meller, H., Vardanyan, B., Yeganyan, L., Rezepkin, A. D., Mariaschk, D., Berezina, N., Gresky, J., Fuchs, K., Knipper, C., Schiffels, S., Balanovska, E., Balanovsky, O., Mathieson, I., Higham, T., Berezin, Y. B., Buzhilova, A., Trifonov, V., Pinhasi, R., Belinskij, A. B., Reich, D., Hansen, S., Krause, J., and Haak, Wolfgang. 2019. Ancient human genome-wide data from a 3000-year interval in the Caucasus corresponds with eco-geographic regions. Nature Communications 10: 590.Google Scholar
West, M. L. 2009. Indo-European poetry and myth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Wilkin, Shevan, Ventresca Miller, A., Fernandes, R., Spengler, R., Taylor, W. T., Brown, D. R., Reich, D., Kennett, D., Culleton, B. J., Kunz, L., Fortes, C., Kitova, A., Kuznetsov, P., Epimakhov, A., Outram, A. K., Kitov, E., Khokhlov, A., Anthony, D., and Boivin, Nicole. 2021. Dairying enabled Early Bronze Age Yamnaya steppe expansions. Nature 598: 629633.Google Scholar
Zakh, Viktor A., Ryabogina, N. E., and Chlachula, J.. 2010. Climate and environmental dynamics of the mid- to late Holocene settlement in the Tobol–Ishim forest-steppe region, West Siberia. Quaternary International 220: 95101.Google Scholar


Bentley, R. A., Price, T. D., & Stephan, E.. 2004. Determining the local 87Sr/86Sr range for archaeological skeletons: A case study from Neolithic Europe. Journal of Archaeological Sciences 31: 365375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009. Dealing with outliers and offsets in radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon 51(3): 10231045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eckardt, H., et al. 2009. Oxygen and strontium isotope evidence for mobility in Roman Winchester. Journal of Archaeological Sciences 36: 28162825.Google Scholar
Masanov, N. E. 1995. Kochevaya tsivilizatsiya kazakhov (osnovy zhiznedeyatelnosti nomadnogo obshestva) [Nomadic civilization of the Kazaks (the basis of the vital functions of nomadic society]. Almaty-Moscow: Sotsinvest-Gorizont. [in Russian].Google Scholar
Masanov, N. E. 2000. Osobennosti funktsionirovaniya traditsionnogo kochevogo obshestva kazakhov [Specific traits of the traditional nomadic society of the Kazakhs]. In: Shishlina, N. I. (ed.), Seasonality studies of the Bronze Age Northwest Caspian steppe, 116130. Moscow: State Historical Museum. [in Russian].Google Scholar
Narodetskaya, Sh. Sh. (ed.) 1974. Agroklimaticheskiye resursy. Kalmyskaya ASSR [Agroclimatic resources. Kalmyk ASSR]. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat. [in Russian].Google Scholar
Shishlina, N. I. 2008. Reconstruction of the Bronze Age of the Caspian steppes. Life styles and life ways of pastoral nomads (British Archaeological Reports international series 1876). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
Shishlina, N. I., et al. 2009. Paleoecology, subsistence, and 14C chronology of the Eurasian Caspian Steppe Bronze Age. Radiocarbon 51(2): 481499.Google Scholar
Shishlina, N. I, van der Plicht, J., & Zazovskaya, E.. 2011. Radiocarbon dating of the Bronze Age bone pins from Eurasian steppes. Geochronometria 38(2): 107115.Google Scholar
Shishlina, N. I., & Larionova, Yu. O.. 2013. Variatsii izotopnogo sostava strontsiya v obraztsakh sovremennykh ulitok yuga Rossii. In: Belinsky, A. B. (ed.), Materialy po izucheniyu istoriko-kulturnogo naslediya Severnogo Kavkaza XI, 59168. Stavropol: Naslediye. [in Russian].Google Scholar
Shishlina, N. I., et al. 2016. Variations in 87Sr/86Sr ratios in contemporary snail samples obtained from the Eastern Caucasus. Arid Ecosystem 6(2): 100106.Google Scholar
Shishlina, N. I., Sevastyanov, V., & Kuznetsova, O.. 2018a. Seasonal practices of prehistoric pastoralists from the south of the Russian plain based on the isotope data of modern and archaeological animal bones and plants. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 21: 12471258.Google Scholar
Shishlina, N. I., et al. 2018b. Innovatsionniye sezonniye migratsii I Sistema zhizneobespecheniya podvizhnykh skotovodov v pustynno-stepnoy zone Evrazii: rol sotsialnikh grup [The innovative seasonal migrations and subsistence system of the mobile pastoralists of the desert-steppe zone of Eurasia: The role of social groups]. Stratum Plus 2: 6990. [in Russian].Google Scholar
Smirnov, P. 1999. Puteviye zapiski po Kakmytskim stepyam Astrakhanskoĭ gubernii. Elista: Kalmytskoe knizhnoe izdatelʹstvo. [in Russian].Google Scholar
Zhitetsky, I. A. 1893. Ocherki byta astrakhanskikh kalmykov [Reports on the everyday life of the Astrakhan Kalmyks]. Astrakhan: Astrakhan Historical Society. [in Russian].Google Scholar


Adiego, I. J. 2007. The Carian language. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Allentoft, M. E., et al. 2015. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia. Nature 522: 167172.Google Scholar
Anthony, D. W. 1990. Migration in archaeology: The baby and the bathwater. American Anthropologist 92(4): 895914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anthony, D.W. 2007. The horse, the wheel, and language: How Bronze-Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Anthony, D. W. 2013. Two IE phylogenies, three PIE migrations, and four kinds of steppe pastoralism. Journal of Language Relationship (Вопросы языкового родства) 9: 121.Google Scholar
Anthony, D. W., et al. 2022. The Eneolithic cemetery at Khvalynsk on the Volga River. Prähistorische Zeitschrift 97: 2267.Google Scholar
Bachhuber, C., 2013. James Mellaart and the Luwians: A culture-(pre)history. In: Mouton, A., Rutherford, I., & Yakubovich, I. (ed.), Luwian identities. Culture, languages and religion between Anatolia and the Aegean, 279304. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Beekes, R. S. P. 2003. The origin of the Etruscans. Amsterdam: KNAW.Google Scholar
Bonechi, M. 1990. Aleppo in età arcaica; a proposito di un’opera recente. Studi Epigrafici e Linguistici sul Vicino Oriente Antico 7: 1537.Google Scholar
Bouckaert, R., et al. 2012. Mapping the origins and expansions of the Indo-European language family. Science 337: 957960.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brixhe, C. 1988. La langue des inscriptions épichoriques de Pisidie. In Arbeitman, Y. L. (ed.), A linguistic happening in memory of Ben Schwartz, 131155. Louvain-la-Neuve: Peeters.Google Scholar
Brixhe, C. 2008. Phrygian. In Woodard, R. D. (ed.), The ancient languages of Asia Minor, 6980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bryce, T. 2009. The Routledge handbook of the peoples and places of ancient Western Asia. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Carpelan, C., & Parpola, A.. 2001. Emergence, contacts and dispersal of Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Uralic and Proto-Aryan in archaeological perspective. In: Carpelan, Christian, Parpola, Asko, & Koskikallio, Petteri (ed.), Early contacts between Uralic and Indo-European: Linguistic and archaeological considerations, 55150. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.Google Scholar
Carruba, O. 1970. Das Palaische. Texte, Grammatik, Lexikon (Studien zu den Boğazköy-Texten 10). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
Collinder, B. 1934. Indo‑uralisches Sprachgut: die Urverwandtschaft zwischen der indoeuropäischen und der uralischen (finnischugrisch‑samojedischen) Sprachfamilie. Uppsala: A.–B. Lundequistska.Google Scholar
Collinder, B. 1954. Zur indo-uralischen Frage. Språkvetenskapliga Sällskapets i Uppsala Förhandlingar Jan. 1952–Dec. 1954, 79–91.Google Scholar
Čop, B., 1975. Die indogermanische Deklination im Lichte der indouralischen vergleichenden Grammatik. Ljubljana: SAZU.Google Scholar
Damgaard, P. de B., et al. 2018. The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia. Science 360: eaar7711.Google Scholar
Darbyshire, G., Mitchell, S., & Vardar, L.. 2000. The Galatian settlement in Asia Minor. Anatolian Studies 50: 7597.Google Scholar
Dergačev, V. A. 2007. O skipetrax, o lošadjax, o vojne: etjudy v zaščity migracionnoj koncepcii M. Gimbutas. St. Petersburg.Google Scholar
Diakonoff, I. M. 1984. The pre-history of the Armenian people. Delmar: Caravan.Google Scholar
Eichner, H. 1973. Die Etymologie von heth. mehur, Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 31: 53107.Google Scholar
Gimbutas, M. 1973. The beginning of the Bronze Age in Europe and the Indo-Europeans 3500−2500 B.C. Journal of Indo-European Studies 1: 163−214.Google Scholar
Gray, R. D., & Atkinson, Q. D.. 2003. Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin. Nature 426: 435439.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gusmani, R. 1964–1986. Lydisches Wörterbuch. Mit grammatischer Skizze und Inschriftensammlung. Heidelberg: Winter (1964). With Ergänzungsband Lfg. 1 (1980), Lfg. 2 (1982), Lfg. 3 (1986).Google Scholar
Gusmani, R. 1989/1990. Lo stato delle ricerche sul milíaco. Incontri linguistici 13: 6978.Google Scholar
Haak, W., et al. 2015. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522: 207211.Google Scholar
Hoffner, H. A. Jr., & Melchert, H. C.. 2008. A grammar of the Hittite language. Winona Lake (Ind.): Eisenbrauns.Google Scholar
Janhunen, J. 2009. Proto-Uralic: What, where and when?. In: Ylikoski, J. (ed.), The quasquicentennial of the Finno-Ugrian Society, 5778. Helsinki: Tiedekirja.Google Scholar
Jones, E. R., et al. 2015. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians. Nature Communications 6: 8912.Google Scholar
Kloekhorst, A. 2006. Initial laryngeals in Anatolian. Historische Sprachforschung 119: 77108.Google Scholar
Kloekhorst, A. 2008a. Etymological dictionary of the Hittite inherited lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series 5). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Kloekhorst, A. 2008b. Some Indo-Uralic aspects of Hittite. Journal of Indo-European Studies 36: 8895.Google Scholar
Kloekhorst, A. 2012. The language of Troy. In: Kelder, J., Uslu, G., & Şerifoğlu, Ö.F. (ed.), Troy. City, Homer, Turkey, 4650. Amsterdam: Allard Pierson Museum.Google Scholar
Kloekhorst, A. 2013. Ликийский язык [The Lycian language]. In: Koryakov, Y. B. & Kibrik, A. A. (ed.), Языки мира: реликтовые индоевропейские языки Передней и Центральной Азии [Languages of the World: Relict Indo-European languages of Western and Central Asia], 131154. Moscow.Google Scholar
Kloekhorst, A. 2014. Accent in Hittite: A study in plene spelling, consonant gradation, clitics, and metrics (Studien zu den Boğazköy-Texten 56). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
Kloekhorst, A. 2018. Anatolian evidence suggests that the Indo-European laryngeals *h2 and *h3 were uvular stops. Indo-European Linguistics 6: 6994.Google Scholar
Kloekhorst, A. 2018. The origin of the Hittite ḫi-conjugation. In: van Beek, L. et al., Farnah. Indo-Iranian and Indo-European Studies in Honor of Sasha Lubotsky, 89106. Ann Arbor: Beech Stave Press.Google Scholar
Kloekhorst, A. 2019. Kanišite Hittite: The earliest attested record of Indo-European (Handbuch der Orientalistik 1.132). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Kloekhorst, A. 2022a. Anatolian. In: Olander, T. (ed.), The Indo-European Language Family: A Phylogenetic Perspective, 6382. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kloekhorst, A. 2022b. Luwians, Lydians, Etruscans, and Troy: the linguistic landscape of northwestern Anatolia in the pre-classical period. In: Hajnal, I. et al. (edd.), The political geography of western Anatolia in the Late Bronze Age. Proceedings of the EAA Conference, Bern, 7 September 2019, 201227. Budapest: Archaeolingua.Google Scholar
Kloekhorst, A., & Pronk, T. C.. 2019. Introduction: Reconstructing Proto‑Indo‑Anatolian and Proto‑Indo‑Uralic. In: Kloekhorst, A. & Pronk, T. C. (ed.), The precursors of Proto‑Indo‑European: The Indo‑Anatolian and Indo‑Uralic hypotheses (Leiden Studies in Indo-European 21), 114. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Kortlandt, F. 1989. Eight Indo-Uralic Verbs? Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 50: 7985.Google Scholar
Kortlandt, F. 2002. The Indo-Uralic verb. In: Blokland, R. & Hasselblatt, C. (ed.), Finno-Ugrians and Indo-Europeans: Linguistic and literary contacts (Studia Fenno-Ugrica Groningana 2), 217227. Maastricht: Shaker.Google Scholar
Kristiansen, K. et al. 2018. Archaeological supplement A to Damgaard et al. 2018: Archaeology of the Caucasus, Anatolia, Central and South Asia 4000–1500 BCE.Google Scholar
Kroonen, G., Barjamovic, G., & Peyrot, M.. 2018. Linguistic supplement to Damgaard et al. 2018: Early Indo-European languages, Anatolian, Tocharian and Indo-Iranian.Google Scholar
Larsen, M. T. 2015. Ancient Kanesh. A merchant colony in Bronze Age Anatolia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lazaridis, I., et al. 2016. Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. Nature 536: 419424.Google Scholar
Laziridis, I., et al. 2017. Genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans. Nature 548: 214218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lazaridis, I., et al. 2022. The genetic history of the Southern Arc: A bridge between West Asia and Europe. Science 377.Google Scholar
Lopuhaä, M. 2019. The Anatolian “ergative.” In: Kloekhorst, A. & Pronk, T. C. (ed.), The precursors of Proto‑Indo‑European: The Indo‑Anatolian and Indo‑Uralic hypotheses (Leiden Studies in Indo-European 21), 131150. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Luraghi, S. 2017. The syntax of Anatolian: The simple sentence. In: Klein, J. et al. (ed.), Handbook of comparative and historical Indo-European linguistics (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft 41.1), 274291. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
Mallory, J. P. 1989. In search of the Indo-Europeans: Languages, archaeology and myth. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
Mallory, J. P., & Adams, D. Q. (ed.). 1997. Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London: Fotzroy Dearborn.Google Scholar
Matasović, R. 2009. Historical evolution of the world’s languages. In: V. Muhvic-Dimanovski & L. Socanac (ed.), Linguistics (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems), 511–522.Google Scholar
Mathieson, I., et al. 2018. The genomic history of southeastern Europe. Nature 555: 197203.Google Scholar
Melchert, H. C. 2003a. The dialectal position of Lydian and Lycian within Anatolian. In: Giorgieri, Mauro, Salvini, Mirjo, Tremouille, Marie-Claude, & Vannicelli, Pietro (ed.), Licia e Lidia prima dell’ellenizzazione. Atti del Convegno internazionale, Roma, 11−12 ottobre 1999, 265−272. Rome: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.Google Scholar
Melchert, H. C. 2003. Language. In: Melchert, H. C. (ed.), The Luwians (Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section One, Near and Middle East Volume 68), 170210. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Melchert, H. C. 2003. Prehistory. In: Melchert, H. C. (ed.), The Luwians (Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section One, Near and Middle East Volume 68), 826. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Melchert, H. C. 2008. Lycian. In: Woodard, R. D. (ed.), The ancient languages of Asia Minor, 4655. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Melchert, H. C. 2011. The PIE verb for “to pour” and medial *h3 in Anatolian. In: Jamison, S. et al. (ed.), Proceedings of the 22nd UCLA Indo-European Conference, 127132. Bremen: Hempen.Google Scholar
Melchert, H. C. 2020. Hittite Historical Phonology after 100 Years (and after 20 years). In: Kim, R.I. et al. (edd.), Hrozný and Hittite: The First Hundred Years. Proceedings of the International Conference Held at Charles University, Prague, 11–14 November 2015, 258276. Leiden-Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
Melchert, H. C. Forthcoming. The position of Anatolian. In: Weiss, M. & Garrett, A. (eds.), Handbook of Indo-European Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Morpurgo Davies, A. 1982/83. Dentals, rhotacism and verbal endings in the Luwian languages. Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft 96: 245270.Google Scholar
Norbruis, S. 2021. Indo-European Origins of Anatolian Morphology and Semantics. Innovations and Archaisms in Hittite, Luwian and Lycian. Amsterdam: LOT.Google Scholar
Oettinger, N. 2017. The morphology of Anatolian. In: Klein, J. et al. (ed.), Handbook of comparative and historical Indo-European linguistics (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft 41.1), 256273. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
Olander, T. 2017. Drinking beer, smoking tobacco and reconstructing prehistory. In: Hansen, B. S. S. et al. (ed.), Usque ad Radices. Indo-European studies in honour of Birgit Anette Olsen, 605618. Copenhagen: Musum Tusculanum.Google Scholar
Orozco, S. P. 2007. La lengua Sidética, Ensayo de síntesis. Kadmos 46: 125142.Google Scholar
Payne, A. 2010. Hieroglyphic Luwian. An introduction with original texts. 2nd rev. ed. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
Pedersen, H. 1933. Zur Frage nach der Urverwandtschaft des Indoeuropäischen mit dem Ugrofinnischen. Liber Semisaecularis Societatis Fenno-Ugricae, 308325. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.Google Scholar
Pereltsvaig, A., & Lewis, M. W.. 2015. The Indo-European controversy. Facts and fallacies in historical linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peyrot, M. 2019. Indo-Uralic, Indo-Anatolian, Indo-Tocharian. In: Kloekhorst, A. & Pronk, T. C. (ed.), The precursors of Proto‑Indo‑European: The Indo‑Anatolian and Indo‑Uralic hypotheses. (= Leiden Studies in Indo-European 21), 186202. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Renfrew, C. 1987. Archaeology and language. The puzzle of Indo-European origins. London: Pimlico.Google Scholar
Renfrew, C. 2000. 10,000 or 5000 years ago? Questions of time depth. In: Renfrew, C., McMahon, A., & Trask, L. (ed.), Time depth in historical linguistics, 413439. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
Renfrew, C. 2003. Time depth, convergence theory, and innovation in Proto-Indo-European: “Old Europe” as a PIE linguistic area. In: Bammesberger, A. & Venneman, T. (ed.), Languages in prehistoric Europe, 1748. Heidelberg: Winter.Google Scholar
Rieken, E. 2016. Zum luwischen Ursprung von LÚta/uḫ(uk)kanti: “Kronprinz”. In: Marquardt, H., Reichmuth, S., & García Trabazo, J. V. (ed.), Anatolica et Indogermanica. Studia linguistica in honorem Johannis Tischler septuagenarii dedicata (Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, Band 155), 267277. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Universität Innsbruck.Google Scholar
Rieken, E. 2017. The dialectology of Anatolian. In: Klein, J. et al. (ed.), Handbook of comparative and historical Indo-European linguistics (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft 41.1), 298308. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
Sammallahti, P. 1988. Historical phonology of the Uralic languages with special reference to Samoyed, Ugric and Permic. In: Sinor, D. (ed.), The Uralic languages: Description, history and foreign contacts, 478554. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Singer, I. 1981. Hittites and Hattians in Anatolia at the beginning of the second millennium B.C. Journal of Indo-European Studies 9: 119134.Google Scholar
Svyatko, S. V., et al. 2017. Stable isotope palaeodietary analysis of the Early Bronze Age Afanasyevo Culture in the Altai Mountains, Southern Siberia. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 14: 6575.Google Scholar
Wang, C.-C., et al. 2019. Ancient human genome-wide data from a 3000-year interval in the Caucasus corresponds with eco-geographic regions. Nature Communications 10: 590.Google Scholar
Wegner, I. 2000. Einführung in die hurritische Sprache. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
Yakar, J. 1981. The Indo-Europeans and their impact on Anatolian cultural development. Journal of Indo-European Studies 9: 94112.Google Scholar
Yakar, J. 2011. Anatolian chronology and terminology. In: Steadman, S. R. & McMahon, G. (ed.), The Oxford handbook of ancient Anatolia 10,000–323 B.C.E., 5693. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar