Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-tcprc Total loading time: 0.83 Render date: 2023-02-04T12:43:33.068Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

8 - States of Discontent

State Crises, Party System Change, and Inclusion in South America

from Part II - Inclusion and Partisan Representation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 January 2021

Diana Kapiszewski
Affiliation:
Georgetown University, Washington DC
Steven Levitsky
Affiliation:
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Deborah J. Yashar
Affiliation:
Princeton University, New Jersey
Get access

Summary

Latin America’s recent inclusionary turn centers on changing relationships between the popular sectors and the state. Yet the new inclusion unfolds in a region in which most states are weak and prone to severe pathologies, such as corruption, inefficiency, and particularism. The first part of the chapter outlines an argument, developed at more length elsewhere, regarding how “state crises” helped drive the consolidation of three distinct party system trajectories among the eight South American countries where the Left would eventually win power. The second part of the chapter argues that these trajectories differed in three ways that likely conditioned how the concomitant inclusionary Left turn unfolded in each case: the institutionalization of left-wing parties, the occurrence of state transformation via constitutional reform, and the level of state capacity. The discussion helps highlight the central role of the state and its pathologies in both driving alternative paths of political development and in conditioning the politics of inclusion. By putting the emphasis on the state and its pathologies, we can better consider not just the sources of sociopolitical exclusion but also the limits of sociopolitical inclusion.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Baker, Andy, and Greene, Kenneth F.. 2011. “The Latin American Left’s Mandate: Free-Market Policies and Issue Voting in New Democracies.” World Politics 63(1): 4377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Basabe-Serrano, Santiago and Martínez, Julián. 2014. “Ecuador: cada vez menos democracia, cada vez más autoritarismo … con elecciones.” Revista de Ciencia Política 34(1): 145170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, Marc. 2011. Pachakutik: Indigenous Movements and Electoral Politics in Ecuador. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
Cameron, Maxwell. 2007. “Peru’s Ollanta Humala: The Rise and Limits of a Left-Wing Political Outsider.” Paper prepared for the conference of the Latin American Studies Association, Montreal.Google Scholar
Cameron, Maxwell. 2011. “The Left Turn that Wasn’t.” In The Resurgence of the Latin American Left, edited by Levitsky, Steven and Roberts, Kenneth, 375398. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Cameron, Maxwell and Hershberg, Eric, eds. 2010. Latin America’s Left Turns: Politics, Policies, and Trajectories of Change. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cameron, Maxwell and Sharpe, Kenneth. 2010. “Andean Left Turns: Constituent Power and Constitution Making.” In Latin America’s Left Turns: Politics, Policies, and Trajectories of Change, edited by Cameron, Maxwell and Hershberg, Eric, 6179. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carreras, Miguel. 2012. “The Rise of Outsiders in Latin America, 1980–2010: An Institutionalist Perspective.” Comparative Political Studies 45(12): 14511482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chong, Alberto, De La O, Ana L., Karlan, Dean, and Wantchekon, Leonard. 2015. “Does Corruption Information Inspire the Fight or Quash the Hope? A Field Experiment in Mexico on Voter Turnout, Choice, and Party Identification.” Journal of Politics 77(1): 5571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coppedge, Michael. 2002. “Venezuela: Popular Sovereignty versus Liberal Democracy.” Kellogg Institute Working Paper #294, University of Notre Dame.Google Scholar
De La Torre, Carlos. 2014. “The People, Democracy, and Authoritarianism in Rafael Correa’s Ecuador.” Constellations 21(4) 457466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De La Torre, Carlos, and Conaghan, Catherine. 2009. “The Hybrid Campaign: Tradition and Modernity in Ecuador’s 2006 Presidential Election.International Journal of Press/Politics 14(3): 335352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garay, Candelaria. 2016. Social Policy Expansion in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
García Guadilla, María Pilar, and Hurtado, Mónica. 2000. “Participation and Constitution Making in Colombia and Venezuela: Enlarging the Scope of Democracy?” Paper prepared for the meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, Miami, FL.Google Scholar
Goldfrank, Benjamin. 2011. Deepening Local Democracy in Latin America: Participation, Decentralization, and the Left. State College: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
Handlin, Samuel. 2017. State Crisis in Fragile Democracies: Polarization and Political Regimes in South America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harten, Sven. 2011. The Rise of Evo Morales and the MAS. London: Zed Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawkins, Kirk. 2010. Venezuela’s Chavismo and Populism in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huber, Evelyne and Stephens, John D.. 2012. Democracy and the Left: Social Policy and Inequality in Latin America. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunter, Wendy. 2010. The Transformation of the Workers’ Party in Brazil, 1989–2009. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larrea, Gustavo. 2008. “Alianza País: una apuesta política novedosa” In La innovación partidista de las izquierdas en América Latina, edited by Ramírez Gallegos, Franklin, 126132. Quito: ILDIS.Google Scholar
Lehoucq, Fabrice. 2008. “Bolivia’s Constitutional Breakdown.” Journal of Democracy 19(4): 110124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levitsky, Steven. 2011. “A Surprising Left Turn.” Journal of Democracy 22(4): 8494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levitsky, Steven, Loxton, James, Van Dyck, Brendan, and Dominguez, Jorge, eds. 2016. Challenges of Party-Building in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levitsky, Steven and Roberts, Kenneth, eds. 2011. The Resurgence of the Latin American Left. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Llorenti Soliz, Sacha. 2004. Para que no se olvide: 12–13 de Febrero 2003. La Paz: Plural Editores.Google Scholar
Luna, Juan Pablo. 2007. “Frente Amplio and the Crafting of a Social Democratic Alternative in Uruguay.” Latin American Politics and Society 49(4): 130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madrid, Raúl. 2010. “The Origins of the Two Lefts in Latin America.” Political Science Quarterly 125(4): 587609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madrid, Raúl. 2012. The Rise of Ethnic Politics in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott. 2006. “The Crisis of Representation in the Andes.” Journal of Democracy 17(3): 1327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott, and Pérez-Liñan, Aníbal. 2012. Democracies and Dictatorships in Latin America: Emergence, Survival, and Fall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott, Power, Timothy J., and Bizzarro, Fernando. 2018. “The Uneven Institutionalization of a Party System: Brazil.” In Party Systems in Latin America: Institutionalization, Decay, and Collapse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medina, Pablo. 1992. “La reforma de la constitución.” In Pablo Medina en Entrevista, edited by Sesto, Farruco. Caracas, Venezuela: Ediciones del Agua Mansa.Google Scholar
Motta, Sara. 2008. “The Chilean Socialist Party (PsCh): Constructing Consent and Disarticulating Dissent to Neo-liberal Hegemony in Chile.” British Journal of Politics and International Relations 10(2): 303327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Donnell, Guillermo. 1993. “On the State, Democratization and Some Conceptual Problems: A Latin American View with Glances at Some Postcommunist Countries.” World Development 21(8): 13551369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pribble, Jennifer. 2013. Welfare and Party Politics in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramírez, Kléber. 1991. Venezuela: La Cuarta República (O la Total Transformación del Estado). Caracas.Google Scholar
Roberts, Kenneth. 2014. Changing Course in Latin America: Party Systems in the Neoliberal Era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Sartori, Giovanni. 1976. Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Schilling-Vacaflor, . 2011. “Bolivia’s New Constitution: Toward Participatory Democracy and Political Pluralism?European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies 90: 322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seawright, Jason. 2012. Party System Collapse: The Roots of Crisis in Peru and Venezuela. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Segura, Renata and Bejarano, Ana María. 2004. “Ni una asamblea más sin nosotros! Exclusion, Inclusion, and the Politics of Constitution-Making in the Andes.” Constellations 11(2): 217236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silva, Eduardo. 2009. Challenging Neoliberalism in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stoyan, Alissandra. 2018. “Consequences of Constituent Assembly Reforms for Democracy in the Andes.” Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
Tanaka, Martín. 2011. “A Vote for Moderate Change.” Journal of Democracy 22(4): 7583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Cott, Donna Lee. 2003a. “From Exclusion to Inclusion: Bolivia’s 2002 Elections.” Journal of Latin American Studies 35(4): 751775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Cott, Donna Lee. 2003b. “Indigenous Movements and Constitutional Transformation: Venezuela in Comparative Perspective.” Latin American Perspectives 30(1): 4969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Cott, Donna Lee. 2005. From Movements to Parties in Latin America: The Evolution of Ethnic Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weyland, Kurt. 2003. “Economic Voting Reconsidered: Crisis and Charisma in the Election of Hugo Chávez.” Comparative Political Studies 36(7): 822848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weyland, Kurt. 2009. “The Rise of Latin America’s Two Lefts: Insights from Rentier State Theory.” Comparative Politics 41(2): 145164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weyland, Kurt, Madrid, Raúl, and Hunter, Wendy, eds. 2010. Leftist Governments in Latin America: Successes and Shortcomings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiesehomeier, Nina, and Benoit, Kenneth. 2007. Parties and Presidents in Latin America: Data from Expert Surveys in 18 Latin American Countries, 2006–2007. University of Konstanz and Trinity College Dublin.Google Scholar
Yashar, Deborah. 2005. Contesting Citizenship in Latin America: The Rise of Indigenous Movements and the Postliberal Challenge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
1
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×