Published online by Cambridge University Press: 12 January 2021
An international economic boom was the necessary condition for the sustainability of the inclusionary turn. The boom affected countries differently depending on domestic structures of power. If the economic boom coincided with the twin collapse of the party system and the capital markets, the inclusionary turn manifested itself as rentier populism, a coalition that dominated Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Rentier Populism is the social basis of super-presidentialism in good economic times. Yet, it becomes incompatible both with socioeconomic inclusion and liberal democracy in hard times.