This chapter focuses on the public health effects of violence against women that is usually inflicted by men. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has estimated that about 4,451,000 women are physically assaulted each year by their intimate partners. Pregnancy is a high-risk time for intimate partner violence (IPV). Women also complain of low self-esteem, body image issues, self-perceived poor health, fear of intimacy, and an inability to trust men. Victims of sexual harassment often report embarrassment, fear, anxiety, self-blame, depression, and loss of self-confidence. The physical and psychological sequelae of violence against women levy serious economic costs on society. The cost of health care services for victims of violence remains high for some time after the original injuries have healed. Calls may need to be placed to the police, a rape crisis counselor, or a battered women's shelter.