Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)
Torloni, MR, Vadmedorska, N, Merialdi, M, et al.Safety of ultrasonography in pregnancy: WHO systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2009; 33: 599–608.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chenn, MM, Coakley, FV, Kaimal, A, et al.Guidelines for computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging use during pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol2008; 112: 333–40.Google Scholar
Streffer, C, Shore, R, Konermann, G, et al.Biological effects after prenatal irradiation (embryo and fetus). A report of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Ann ICRP2003; 33: 5–206.Google ScholarPubMed
Karam, PA. Determining and reporting fatal radiation exposure from diagnostic radiation. Health Phys2000; 79 (Suppl 5): 585–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cappell, MS, Colon, VJ, Sidhom, OA. A study of 10 medical centres of the safety and efficacy of 48 flexible sigmoidoscopies and 8 colonoscopies during pregnancy with follow-up of fetal outcome and with comparison to control groups. Dig Dis Sci1996; 41: 2353–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearl, J, Price, R, Richardson, W, Fanelli, R. Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and use of laparoscopy for surgical problems during pregnancy. Surg Endosc2011; 25: 3479–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reedy, MB, Galan, HL, Richards, WE, et al.Laparoscopy during pregnancy: a survey of laparoendoscopic surgeons. J Reprod Med1997; 42: 33–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Oelsner, G, Stockheim, D, Soriano, D, et al.Pregnancy outcome after laparoscopy or laparotomy in pregnancy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc2003; 10: 200–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rollins, MD, Chan, KJ, Price, RR. Laparoscopy for appendicitis and cholelithiasis during pregnancy: a new standard of care. Surg Endosc2004; 18: 237–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, CJ, Yen, CF, Lee, CL, Soong, YK. Minilaparoscopic cystectomy and appendectomy in late second trimester. JSLS2002; 6: 373–5.Google ScholarPubMed
McKellar, DP, Anderson, CT, Boynton, CJ, Peoples, JB. Cholecystectomy during pregnancy without fetal loss. Surg Gynecol Obstet1992; 174: 465–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Casele, HL. The use of unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparins in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol2006; 49: 895–905.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lachman, E, Schienfield, A, Voss, E, et al.Pregnancy and laparoscopic surgery. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc1999; 6: 347–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fardiazar, Z, Derakhshan, I, Torab, R, Vahedi, A, Goldust, M. Maternal-neonatal outcome in pregnancies with non-obstetric laparotomy during pregnancy. Pak J Biol Sci2014; 17: 260–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumar, A, Pearl, M. Mini-laparotomy versus laparoscopy for gynecologic conditions. J Minim Invasive Gynecol2014; 21: 109–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salani, R, Theiler, RN, Lindsay, M. Uterine torsion and fetal bradycardia associated with external cephalic version. Obstet Gynecol2006; 108: 820–2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Setchell, M. Abdominal pain in pregnancy. In Studd, J (ed.), Progress in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 6. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1987, pp. 89–99.Google Scholar
Yoneyama, K, Kimura, A, Kogo, M, et al.Clinical predictive factors for preterm birth in women with threatened preterm labour or preterm premature ruptured membranes. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol2009; 49: 16–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andrews, CM, O’Neill, LM. Use of pelvic tilt exercise for ligament pain relief. J Nurse Midwifery1994; 39: 370–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dowswell, T, Neilson, JP. Interventions for heartburn in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2008; (4): CD007065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gill, SK, O’Brien, L, Koren, G. The safety of histamine 2 (H2) blockers in pregnancy: A meta-analysis. Dig Dis Sci2009; 54: 1835–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trash, HK, Friede, A, Hogue, CJ. Abdominal pregnancy in the United States: frequency and maternal mortality. Obstet Gynecol1987; 69: 333–6.Google Scholar
Aliyu, LD, Ashimi, AO. A multicenter study of advanced abdominal pregnancy: a review of six cases in low resource settings. Europ J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol2013; 170: 33–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nkusu Nunyalulendho, D, Einterz, EM. Advanced abdominal pregnancy: case report and review of 163 cases reported since 1946. Rural Remote Health2008; 8: 1087–90.Google ScholarPubMed
Worley, KC, Hnat, MD, Cunningham, FG. Advanced extrauterine pregnancy: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Am J Obstet Gynecol2008; 198: 297–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huang, K, Song, L, Wang, L, et al.Advanced abdominal pregnancy: an increasingly challenging clinical concern for obstetricians. Int J Clin Pathol2014; 7: 5461–72.Google ScholarPubMed
Sunday-Adeoye, I, Twoney, D, Egwuatu, EV, Okonta, PI. A 30 year review of advanced abdominal pregnancy at the Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Afikpo, south eastern Nigeria (1976–2006). Arch Gynecol Obstet2011; 283: 19–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cetinkaya, MB, Kokcu, A, Alper, T. Follow up of the regression of the placenta left in situ in an advanced abdominal pregnancy using the Cavaleiri method. J Obstet Gynaecol Res2005; 31: 22–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, B, Nielson, TF. Appendicitis in pregnancy: diagnosis, management and complications. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand1998; 78: 758–62.Google Scholar
Lehnert, BE, Gross, JA, Linnau, KF, Moshiri, M. Utility of ultrasound for evaluating the appendix during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Emerg Radiol2012; 19: 293–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Israel, GM, Malguria, N, McCarthy, S, Copel, J, Weinreb, J. MRI vs. ultrasound for suspected appendicitis during pregnancy. J Magn Reson Imaging2008; 28: 428–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coursey, CA, Nelson, RC, Patel, MB. Making the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: do more preoperative CT scans mean fewer negative appendectomies? A 10-year study. Radiology2009; 254: 460–8.Google Scholar
Basaran, A, Basaran, M. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis during pregnancy: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv2009; 64: 481–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pedrosa, I, Lafornara, M, Pandharipande, PV, et al.Pregnant patients suspected of having acute appendicitis: effect of MR imaging on negative laparotomy rate and appendiceal perforation rate. Radiology2009; 250: 749–57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corneille, MG, Gallup, TM, Bening, T, et al.The use of laparoscopic surgery in pregnancy: evaluation of safety and efficacy. Am J Surg2010; 200: 363–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhang Y, , Zhao, YY, Qiao, J, Ye, RH. Diagnosis of appendicitis during pregnancy and perinatal outcome in the late pregnancy. Chin Med J (Engl)2009; 122: 521–4.Google ScholarPubMed
Eom, JM, Hong, JH, Jeon, SW, et al.Safety and Clinical Efficacy of Laparoscopic Appendectomy for Pregnant Women with Acute Appendicitis. Ann Acad Med Singapore2012; 41: 82–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Chung, JC, Cho, GS, Shin, EJ, Kim, HC, Song, OP. Clinical outcomes compared between laparoscopic and open appendectomy in pregnant women. Can J Surg2013; 56: 341–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walker, HG, Samaraee, AA, Mills, SJ, Kalbassi, MR. Laparoscopic appendicectomy in pregnancy: a systematic review of the published evidence. Int J Surg2014; 12: 1235–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jackson, H, Granger, S, Price, R, et al.Diagnosis and laparoscopic treatment of surgical diseases during pregnancy: an evidence-based review. Surg Endosc2008; 22: 1917–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walsh, CA1, Tang, T, Walsh, SR. Laparoscopic versus open appendicectomy in pregnancy: a systematic review. Int J Surg2008; 6: 339–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meyerson, S, Holtz, T, Ehringreis, M, et al.Small bowel obstruction in pregnancy. Am J Gastroenterol1995; 90: 299–302.Google ScholarPubMed
Rawlings, C. Management of postcaesarian Ogilvie’s syndrome and their subsequent outcomes. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol2010; 50: 573–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ko, CW, Beresford, SA, Schulte, SJ, Matsumoto, AM. Incidence, natural history, and risk factors for biliary sludge and stones during pregnancy. Hepatology2005; 41: 359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ko, CW. Risk factors for gallstone-related hospitalization during pregnancy and the postpartum. Am J Gastroenterol2006; 101: 2263–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sang, SJ, Mayo, ML, Rodriguez-Frias, E, et al.Safety and utility of ERCP during pregnancy. Gastrointest Endosc2009;69:453–61.Google Scholar
Othman, MO, Stone, E, Hashimi, M, Parasher, G. Conservative management of cholelithiasis and its complications in pregnancy is associated with recurrent symptoms and more emergency department visits. Gastrointest Endosc2012; 76: 564–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sun, Y, Fan, C, Wang, S. Clinical analysis of 16 patients with acute pancreatitisin the third trimester of pregnancyInt J Clin Exp Pathol2013; 6: 1696–701.Google ScholarPubMed
Kayatas, SE, Eser, M, Cam, C, Cogendez, E, Guzin, K. Acute pancreatitis associated with hypertriglyceridemia: a life-threatening complication. Arch Gynecol Obstet2010; 281: 427–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, SS, Lin, XZ, Tsai, YT, et al.Clinical significance of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and biochemical testsin the rapid diagnosis of gallstone-related pancreatitis: a prospective study. Pancreas1988; 3: 153–8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tang, SJ, Mayo, MJ, Rodriguez-Frias, E, et al.Safety and utility of ERCP during pregnancy. Gastrointest Endosc2009; 69: 453–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hernandez, A, Petrov, MS, Brooks, DC, et al.Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy: a 10-year single center experience. J Gastrointest Surg2007; 11: 1623–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Date, RS, Kaushal, M, Ramesh, A. A review of the management of gallstone disease and its complications in pregnancy. Am J Surg2008; 196: 599–608.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crisan, LS, Steidl, ET, Rivera-Alsina, ME. Acute hyperlipidemic pancreatitis in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol2009; 200: e9.Google Scholar
Chapelle, CF, Schutte, JM, Schuitemaker, NW, Steegers, EAP, van Roosmalen, J. Maternal mortality attributable to vascular dissection and rupture in the Netherlands: a nationwide confidential enquiryBJOG2012; 119: 86–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aubrey-Bassler, FK, Sowers, N. 613 cases of splenic rupture without risk factors or previously diagnosed disease: a systematic review. BMC Emerg Med2012; 12: 11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baker, PN, Madeley, RJ, Symonds, EM. Abdominal pain of unknown aetiology in pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol1989; 96: 688–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glanc, P, Brofman, N, Salem, S, et al.The prevalence of incidental simple ovarian cysts ≥ 3 cm detected by transvaginal sonography in early pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can2007; 29: 502–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Sergent, F, Verspyck, E, Marpeau, L. [Management of an ovarian cyst during pregnancy]. Presse Med2003; 32: 1039–45.Google ScholarPubMed
Zanetta, G, Mariani, E, Lissoni, A, et al.A prospective study of the role of ultrasound in the management of adnexal masses in pregnancy. BJOG2003; 110: 578–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perkins, KY, Johnson, JL, Kay, HH. Simple ovarian cysts: clinical features on a first-trimester ultrasound scan. J Reprod Med1997; 42: 440–4.Google ScholarPubMed
Goffinet, F. [Ovarian cysts and pregnancy]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)2001; 30 (1 Suppl): S100–8.Google Scholar
Yen, CF, Lin, SL, Murk, W, et al.Risk analysis of torsion and malignancy for adnexal masses during pregnancy. Fertil Steril2009; 91: 1895–902.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Szecsi, PB, Andersen, MR, Bjørngaard, B, Hedengran, KK, Stender, S. Cancer antigen 125 after delivery in women with a normal pregnancy: a prospective cohort study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand2014; 93: 1295–301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Derchi, LE, Serafini, G, Gandolfo, N, Gandolfo, NG, Martinoli, C. Ultrasound in gynecology. Eur Radiol2001; 11: 2137–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherard, GB, Hodson, CA, Williams, HJ, et al.Adnexal masses and pregnancy: a 12-year experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol2003; 189: 358–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Usui, R, Minakami, H, Kosuge, S, et al.A retrospective survey of clinical, pathologic, and prognostic features of adnexal masses operated on during pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Res2000; 26: 89–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, LM, Connors-Beatty, DJ, Nowak, A, Tush, B. The role of ultrasonography in the detection and management of adnexal masses during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol1998; 179: 703–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, SB, Oelsner, G, Seidman, DS, et al.Laparoscopic detorsion allows sparing of the twisted ischemic adnexa. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc1999; 6: 139–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yuen, PM, Chang, AM. Laparoscopic management of adnexal mass during pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand1997; 76: 173–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Balci, O, Gezginc, K, Karatayli, R, et al.Management and outcomes of adnexal masses during pregnancy: a 6-year experience. J Obstet Gynaecol Res2008; 34: 524–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caspi, B, Ben-Arie, A, Appelman, Z, Or, Y, Hagay, Z. Aspiration of simple pelvic cysts during pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest2000; 49: 102–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glanc, P, Salem, S, Farine, D. Adnexal masses in the pregnant patient: a diagnostic and management challenge. Ultrasound Q2008; 24: 225–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kobayashi, H, Yoshida, A, Kobayashi, M, Yamada, T. Changes in size of the functional cyst on ultrasonography during early pregnancy. Am J Perinatol1997; 14: 1–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rice, JP, Kay, HH, Mahony, BS. The clinical significance of uterine leiomyomas in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol1989; 160: 1212–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strobelt, N, Ghidini, A, Cavallone, M, et al.Natural history of uterine leiomyomas in pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med1994; 13: 399–401.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laughlin, SK, Baird, DD, Savitz, DA, Herring, AH, Hartmann, KE. Prevalence of uterine leiomyomas in the first trimester of pregnancy: an ultrasound-screening study. Obstet Gynecol2009; 113: 630–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qidwai, GI, Caughey, AB, Jacoby, AF. Obstetric outcomes in women with sonographically identified uterine leiomyomata. Obstet Gynecol2006; 107: 376–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Winer-Muram, HT, Muram, D, Gillieson, MS. Uterine myomas in pregnancy. J Can Assoc Radiol1984; 35: 168–70.Google ScholarPubMed
Rosati, P, Exacoustos, C, Mancuso, S. Longitudinal evaluation of uterine myoma growth during pregnancy. A sonographic study. J Ultrasound Med1992; 11: 511–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aharoni, A, Reiter, A, Golan, D, Paltiely, Y, Sharf, M. Patterns of growth of uterine leiomyomas during pregnancy: a prospective longitudinal study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol1988; 95: 510–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klatsky, PC, Tran, ND, Caughey, AB, Fujimoto, VY. Fibroids and reproductive outcomes: a systematic literature review from conception to delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol2008; 198: 357–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lam, SJ, Best, S, Kumar, S. The impact of fibroid characteristics on pregnancy outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol2014; 211: 395.e1–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coronado, GD, Marshall, LM, Schwartz, SM. Complications in pregnancy, labor, and delivery with uterine leiomyomas: a population-based study. Obstet Gynecol2000; 95: 764–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Exacoustos, C, Rosati, P. Ultrasound diagnosis of uterine myomas and complications in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol1993; 82: 97–101.Google ScholarPubMed
Vergani, P, Ghidini, A, Strobelt, N, et al.Do uterine leiomyomas influence pregnancy outcome?Am J Perinatol1994; 11: 356–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pritts, EA, Parker, WH, Olive, DL. Fibroids and infertility: an updated systematic review of the evidence. Fertil Steril2009; 91: 1215–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carranza-Mamane, B, Havelock, J, Hemmings, R, et al.The management of uterine fibroids in women with otherwise unexplained infertility. J Obstet Gynaecol Can2015; 37: 277–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chittawar, PW, Franik, S, Pouwer, AW, Farquhar, C. Minimally invasive surgical techniques versus open myomectomy for uterine fibroids. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2014; (10): CD004638.Google Scholar
Roberts, WE, Fulp, KS, Morrison, JC, Martin, JN. The impact of leiomyomas on pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol1999; 39: 43–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Narayan, R, Rajat, , Goswamy, K. Treatment of submucous fibroids, and outcome of assisted conception. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc1994; 1: 307–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koike, T, Minakami, H, Kosuge, S, et al.Uterine leiomyoma in pregnancy: its influence on obstetric performance. J Obstet Gynaecol Res1999; 25: 309–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Celik, C, Acar, A, Ciçek, N, Gezginc, K, Akyürek, C. Can myomectomy be performed during pregnancy?Gynecol Obstet Invest2002; 53: 79–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bonito, M, Gulemì, L, Basili, R, Roselli, D. Myomectomy during the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol2007; 34: 149–50.Google ScholarPubMed
De Carolis, S, Fatigante, G, Ferrazzani, S, et al.Uterine myomectomy in pregnant women. Fetal Diagn Ther2001; 16: 116–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wittich, AC, Salminen, ER, Yancey, MK, Markenson, GR. Myomectomy during early pregnancy. Mil Med2000; 165: 162–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mollica, G, Pittini, L, Minganti, E, Perri, G, Pansini, F. Elective uterine myomectomy in pregnant women. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol1996; 23: 168–72.Google ScholarPubMed
Nezhat, C. The “cons” of laparoscopic myomectomy in women who may reproduce in the future. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud1996; 41: 280–3.Google ScholarPubMed
Matsunaga, JS, Daly, CB, Bochner, CJ, Agnew, CL. Repair of uterine dehiscence with continuation of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol2004; 104: 1211–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dubuisso, JB, Fauconnier, A, Babaki-Fard, K, Chapron, C. Laparoscopic myomectomy: a current view. Hum Reprod Update2000; 6: 588–94.Google ScholarPubMed
Tian, YC, Long, TF, Dai, YM. Pregnancy outcomes following different surgical approaches of myomectomy. J Obstet Gynaecol Res2015; 41: 350–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Al-Serehi, A, Mhoyan, A, Brown, M, et al.Placenta accreta: an association with fibroids and Asherman syndrome. J Ultrasound Med2008; 27: 1623–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boivin, J, Bunting, L, Collins, JA, Nygren, KG. International estimates of infertility prevalence and treatment-seeking: potential need and demand for infertility medical care. Hum Reprod2007; 22: 1506–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dupas, C, Christin-Maitre, S. [What are the factors affecting fertility in 2008?]Ann Endocrinol (Paris)2008; 69 (Suppl 1): S57–61.Google Scholar
Snick, HK, Snick, TS, Evers, JL, Collins, JA. The spontaneous pregnancy prognosis in untreated subfertile couples: the Walcheren primary care study. Hum Reprod1997; 12: 1582–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grigorescu, V, Zhang, Y, Kissin, DM, et al.Maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes after assisted reproductive technology by infertility diagnosis: ovulatory dysfunction versus tubal obstruction. Fertil Steril2014; 101: 1019–25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pandey, S, Shetty, A, Hamilton, M, Bhattacharya, S, Maheshwari, A. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies resulting from IVF/ICSI: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update2012; 18: 485–503.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ziadeh, SM, Zakaria, MR, Abu-Hieja, A. Pregnancy rates using CC/hMG or hMG alone. J Obstet Gynaecol Res1997; 23: 97–101.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elchalal, U, Schenker, JG. The pathophysiology of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: views and ideas. Hum Reprod1997; 12: 1129–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delvigne, A, Rozenberg, S. Epidemiology and prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS): a review. Hum Reprod Update2002; 8: 559–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schieve, LA, Tatham, L, Peterson, HB, Toner, J, Jeng, G. Spontaneous abortion among pregnancies conceived using assisted reproductive technology in the United States. Obstet Gynecol2003; 101: 959–67.Google ScholarPubMed
Clayton, HB, Schieve, LA, Peterson, HB, et al.Ectopic pregnancy risk with assisted reproductive technology procedures. Obstet Gynecol2006; 107: 595–604.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perkins, KM, Boulet, SL, Kissin, DM, Jamieson, DJ; National ART Surveillance (NASS) Group. Risk of ectopic pregnancy associated with assisted reproductive technology in the United States, 2001–2011. Obstet Gynecol2015; 125: 70–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Adamson, GD, de Mouzon, J, Lancaster, P, et al.World collaborative report on in vitro fertilization, 2000. Fertil Steril2006; 85: 1586–622.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Mouzon, J, Goossens, V, Bhattacharya, S, et al.Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2006: results generated from European registers by ESHRE. Hum Reprod2010; 25: 1851–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Qin, J, Wang, H, Sheng, X, et al.Pregnancy-related complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes in multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproductive technology: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Fertil Steril2015; 103: 1492–508.e1–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunby, J, Bissonnette, F, Librach, C, et al.Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in Canada: 2006 results from the Canadian ART Register. Fertil Steril2010; 93: 2189–201.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Peperstraten, AM, Hermens, RP, Nelen, WL, et al.Perceived barriers to elective single embryo transfer among IVF professionals: a national survey. Hum Reprod2008; 23: 2718–23.Google ScholarPubMed
Allen, C, Bowdin, S, Harrison, RF, et al.Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes after assisted reproduction: a comparative study. Ir J Med Sci2008; 177: 233–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jackson, RA, Gibson, KA, Wu, YW, Croughan, MS. Perinatal outcomes in singletons following in vitro fertilization: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol2004; 103: 551–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caserta, D, Marci, R, Tatone, C, et al.IVF pregnancies: neonatal outcomes after the new Italian law on assisted reproduction technology (law 40/2004). Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand2008; 87: 935–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malchau, SS, Loft, A, Henningsen, AK, Nyboe Andersen, A, Pinborg, A. Perinatal outcomes in 6,338 singletons born after intrauterine insemination in Denmark, 2007 to 2012: the influence of ovarian stimulation. Fertil Steril2014; 102: 1110–16.e2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hvidtjørn, D, Schieve, L, Schendel, D, et al.Cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorders, and developmental delay in children born after assisted conception: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med2009; 163: 72–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kallen, B. The risk of neurodisability and other long-term outcomes for infants born following ART. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med2014; 19: 239–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Romundstad, LB, Romundstad, PR, Sunde, A, et al.Increased risk of placenta previa in pregnancies following IVF/ICSI: a comparison of ART and non-ART pregnancies in the same mother. Hum Reprod2006; 21: 2353–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kashyap, S, Claman, P. Polycystic ovary disease and the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension. J Reprod Med2000; 45: 991–4.Google ScholarPubMed
Kuliev, A, Verlinsky, Y. The role of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in women of advanced reproductive age. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol2003; 15: 233–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corbett, S, Shmorgun, D, Claman, P, et al.The prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Can2014; 36: 1024–36.Google ScholarPubMed
Ankum, WM, Mol, BW, Van der Veen, F, Bossuyt, PM. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril1996; 65: 1093–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McMahon, CA, Ungerer, JA, Beaurepaire, J, Tennant, C, Saunders, D. Anxiety during pregnancy and fetal attachment after in-vitro fertilization conception. Hum Reprod1997; 12: 176–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doherty, DA, Newnham, JP, Bower, C, Hart, R. Implications of polycystic ovary syndrome for pregnancy and for the health of offspring. Obstet Gynecol2015; 125: 1397–406.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McElhaney, RD, Ringer, M, DeHart, DJ, Vasilenko, P. Rubella immunity in a cohort of pregnant women. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol1999; 20: 64–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Urman, B, Sarac, E, Dogan, L, Gurgan, T. Pregnancy in infertile PCOD patients. Complications and outcome. J Reprod Med1997; 42: 501–5.Google ScholarPubMed
Rackow, BW, Arici, A. Reproductive performance of women with Mullerian anomalies. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol2007; 19: 229–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heinonen, PK. Reproductive performance of women with uterine anomalies after abdominal or hysteroscopic metroplasty or no surgical treatment. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc1997; 4: 311–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leiman, G, Harrison, NA, Rubin, A. Pregnancy following conization of the cervix: complications related to cone size. Am J Obstet Gynecol1980; 136: 14–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pinborg, A, Ortoft, G, Loft, A, Rasmussen, SC, Ingerslev, HJ. Cervical conization doubles the risk of preterm and very preterm birth in assisted reproductive technology twin pregnancies. Hum Reprod2015; 30: 197–204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ehsanipoor, RM, Jolley, JA, Goldshore, MA, et al.The relationship between previous treatment for cervical dysplasia and preterm delivery in twin gestations. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med2014; 27: 821–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cook, JR, Seman, EI. Pregnancy following endometrial ablation: case history and literature review. Obstet Gynecol Surv2003; 58: 551–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roux, I, Das, M, Fernandez, H, Deffieux, X. Pregnancy after endometrial ablation: a report of three cases. J Reprod Med2013; 58: 173–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Yin, CS. Pregnancy after hysteroscopic endometrial ablation without endometrial preparation: a report of five cases and a literature review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol2010; 49: 311–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McShane, PM, Heye, PS, Epstein, ME. Maternal and perinatal mortality resulting from placenta previa. Obstet Gynecol1985; 65: 176–82.
Oyelese, Y, Ananth, CV. Placental abruption. Obstet Gynecol2006; 108: 1005–16.
Ananth, CV, Demissie, K, Smulian, JC, Vintzileos, AM. Placenta previa in singleton and twin births in the United States, 1989 through 1998. A comparison of risk factor profiles and associated conditions. Am J Obstet Gynecol2003; 188: 275–81.
Fan, D, Wu, S, Liu, L, et al. Prevalence of antepartum hemorrhage in women with placenta previa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep2017; 7: 40320. htps://doi.org/10.1038/srep40320.
Crane, JM, Van den Hof, MC, Dodds, L, Armson, BA, Liston, R. Maternal complications with placenta previa. Am J Perinatol. 2000; 17: 101–5.
Crane, JM, Van den Hof, MC, Dods, L, Armson, BA, Liston, R. Neonatal outcomes with placenta previa. Obstet Gynecol1997; 177: 210–14.
Ananth, CV, Smulian, JC, Vintzileos, AM.The effects of placenta previa on neonatal mortality: a population based study in the United States, 1989 through 1997. Am J Obstet Gynecol2003; 188: 1299–304.
Faiz, AS, Ananth, CV. Etiology and risk factors for placenta previa. An overview and meta-analysis of observational studies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med2003; 13: 175–90.
Romundstad, LB, Romundstad, PR, Sunde, A, et al.Increased risk of placenta previa in pregnancies following IVF/ICSI: a comparison of ART and non-ART pregnancies in the same mother. Hum Reprod2006; 21: 2353–8.
Naeye, RL. Abruptio placentae and placenta previa: frequency, perinatal mortality, and cigarette smoking. Obstet Gynecol1980; 55: 701–4.
Hibbard, BM. Bleeding in late pregnancy. In Hibbard, BM (ed.), Principles of Obstetrics. London: Butterworths, 1988, pp. 96–104.
Hershkowitz, R, Fraser, D, Mazor, M, Leiberman, JR. One or more multiple previous cesarean sections are associated with similar increased frequency of placenta previa. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol1995; 62: 185–8.
Ananth, CV, Smulian, JC, Vintzileos, AM. The association of placenta praevia with history of cesarean delivery and abortion: a metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997; 177: 1071–8.
Knight, M, Bunch, K, Tuffnell, D, et al. (eds.) on behalf of MBRRACE-UK. Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care: Lessons learned to inform maternity care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2015–17. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, 2019.
Cotton, DB, Read, JA, Paul, RH, Quilligan, EJ. The conservative aggressive management of placenta previa. Am J Obstet Gynecol1980; 137: 687–95.
Drife, J, Lewis, G (eds). Why Mothers Die: A Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom 2000–2002. London: Stationery Office, 2004.
Naeye, ER. Placenta previa: predisposing factors and effects on the fetus and the surviving infants. Obstet Gynecol1978; 52: 521–5.
Papinniemi, M, Keski-Nisula, L, Heinonen, S. Placental ratio and risk of velamentous umbilical cord insertion are increased in women with placenta previa. Am J Perinatol2007; 24: 353–7.
Varma, TR. Fetal growth and placental function in patients with placenta previa. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw1971; 80: 311–15.
Taipale, P, Hiilesmaa, V, Ylostalo, P. Diagnosis of placenta previa by transvaginal sonographic screening at 12–16 weeks in a non-selected population. Obstet Gynecol1997; 89: 364–7.
Konje, JC, Ewings, PD, Adewunmi, OA, et al.The outcome of pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion. J Obstet Gynecol1992; 12: 150–5.
Newton, ER, Barss, V, Cetrulo, CL. The epidemiology and clinical history of asymptomatic mid-trimester placenta previa. Am J Obstet Gynecol1984; 148: 743–8.
Chapman, MG, Furness, ET, Jones, WR, Sheat, JH. Significance of the location of placenta site in early pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol1989; 86: 846–8.
McClure, N, Dornan, JC. Early identification of placenta previa. Br J Obstet Gynaecol1990; 97: 959–61.
Balayla, J, Wo, BL, Bedard, MJ. A late-preterm, early-term stratified analysis of neonatal outcomes by gestational age in placenta previa: defining the optimal timing for delivery. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med2015; 28: 1756–61.
Hong, J, Jee, Y, Yoon, H, Kim, S. Comparison of general and epidural anesthesia in elective cesarean section for placenta previa totalis: maternal hemodynamics, blood loss and neonatal outcome. Int J Obstet Anesth2003; 12: 12–16.
Yamada, T, Mori, H, Ueki, M. Autologous blood transfusion in patients with placenta previa. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand2005; 84: 255–9.
Scott, JS. Antepartum haemorrhage. In Whitefield, CR (ed.), Dewhurst’s Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology for Postgraduates, 4th edn. Oxford: Blackwell, 1986, pp. 412–17.
Silver, RM, Landon, MB, Rouse, DJ, et al.; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Maternal morbidity associated with multiple repeat cesarean deliveries. Obstet Gynecol2006; 107: 1226–32.
Knight, M, Nair, M, Tuffnell, D, et al.; MBRRACE-UK. Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care: Lessons Learned to Inform Maternity Care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2013–15. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford2017.
Ananth, CV, Lavery, JA, Vintzileos, AM, et al. Severe placental abruption: clinical definition and associations with maternal complications. Am J Obstet Gynecol2016; 214: 272.e1–e9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2015.09.069.
Rasmussen, S, Irgrens, KM, Dalaker, K. The occurrence of placental abruption in Norway 1967–1991. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand1996; 75: 222–8.
Fox, H (ed.). Pathology of the Placenta. London: Saunders, 1978.
Fraser, R, Watson, R. Bleeding during the latter half of pregnancy. In Chalmers, I (ed.), Effective Care in Pregnancy and Childbirth. London: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp. 89–92.
Sher, G, Statland, BE. Abruptio placentae with coagulopathy: a rational basis for management. Clin Obstet Gynecol1985; 28: 15–23.
Pritchard, JA, Brekken, AL. Clinical and laboratory studies on severe abruption placentae. Am J Obstet Gynecol1967; 97: 681–700.
Rasmussen, S, Irgrens, KM, Dalaker, K. The effect on the likelihood of further pregnancy of placental abruption and the rate of its recurrence. Br J Obstet Gynaecol1997; 104: 1292–5.
Paterson, MEL. The aetiology and outcome of abruptio placentae. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand1979; 58: 31–5.
Kramer, MS, Usher, RH, Pollack, R, et al.Etiologic determinants of abruptio placentae. Obstet Gynecol1997; 89: 221–6.
Ananth, CV, Smulian, JC, Vintzileos, AM. Incidence of placental abruption in relation to cigarette smoking and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Obstet Gynecol1999; 93: 622–8.
Lehtovirta, P, Forss, M. The acute effect of smoking on intervillous blood flow of the placenta. Br J Obstet Gynaecol1978; 85: 729–37.
Crosby, WM, Costila, JP. Safety of lap-belt restraint for pregnant victims of automobile collisions. N Engl J Med1971; 284: 632–5.
Egley, C, Cefalo, R. Abruptio placentae. In Studd, J (ed.), Progress in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 5. London, Churchill Livingstone,1985, pp. 108–20.
Yaron, Y, Cherry, M, Kramer, RL, et al.Second trimester maternal serum marker screening: maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, betahuman chorionic gonadotrophin, estriol, and their various combinations as predictors of pregnancy outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol1999; 181: 968–74.
Abdella, TN, Sibai, BM, Hays, JM, Anderson, GD. Relationship of hypertensive diseases to abruptio placentae. Obstet Gynecol1984; 63: 365–70.
Ananth, CV, Savitz, DA, Williams, MA. Placental abruption and its association with hypertension and prolonged rupture of membranes: a methodologic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol1996; 88: 309–18.
Golditch, IA, Boyce, NE. Management of abruptio placentae. JAMA1970; 212: 288–93.
De Valera, E. Abruptio placentae. Am J Obstet Gynecol1968; 100: 599–606.
De Vries, JI, Dekker, GA, Huijgens, PC, et al.Hyperhomocysteinemia and protein S deficiency in complicated pregnancies. Br J Obstet Gynaecol1997; 104: 1248–54.
Kupferminc, MJ, Eldor, A, Steinman, N, et al.Increased frequency of genetic thrombophilia in women with complications of pregnancy. N Engl J Med1999; 340: 9–13.
Zdoukopoulos, N, Zintzaras, E. Genetic risk factors for placental abruption: a HuGE review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology2008; 19: 309–323.
Pariente, G, Wiznitzer, A, Sergienko, R, Mazor, M, Holcberg, G, Sheiner, E. Placental abruption: critical analysis of risk factors and perinatal outcomes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med2010; 24: 698–702.
Kennare, R, Heard, A, Chan, A. Substance use during pregnancy: risk factors and obstetric and perinatal outcomes in South Australia. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol2005; 45: 220–5.
Ananth, CV, Wilcox, AJ. Placental abruption and perinatal mortality in the United States. Am J Epidemiol2001; 153: 332–7.
Tikkanen, M, Luukkaala, T, Gissler, M, et al.Decreasing perinatal mortality in placental abruption. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand2013; 92: 298–305.
Ananth, CV, VanderWeele, TJ. Placental abruption and perinatal mortality with preterm delivery as a mediator: disentangling direct and indirect effects. Am J Epidemiol2011; 174: 99–108.
Aliyu, MH, Salihu, HM, Lynch, O, et al.Placental abruption, offspring sex, and birth outcomes in a large cohort of mothers. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med2012; 25: 248–52.
Tikkanen, M. Placental abruption: epidemiology, risk factors and consequences. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand2011; 90: 140–9.
Ananth, CV, Berkowitz, GS, Savitz, DA, Lapinski, RH. Placental abruption and adverse perinatal outcomes. JAMA1999; 282: 1646–51.
Sheiner, E, Shoham-Vardi, I, Hadar, A, et al.Incidence, obstetric risk factors and pregnancy outcome of preterm placental abruption: a retrospective analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med2002; 11: 34–9.
Lunan, CB. The management of abruptio placentae. J Obstet Gynecol Br Commonw1973; 80: 120–4.
Nyberg, DA, Cyr, DR, Mack, LA, Wilson, DA, Shuman, WP. Sonographic spectrum of placental abruption. AJR Am J Roentgenol1987; 148: 161–7.
Rivera-Alxima, ME, Saldana, LR, Maklad, N, Korp, S. The use of ultrasound in the expectant management of abruptio placentae. Am J Obstet Gynecol1983; 146: 924–7.
Barron, SL. Antepartum haemorrhage. In Chamberlain, G, Turnbull, A (eds), Obstetrics. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1989, pp. 176–88.
Okonofua, FE, Olatubosun, OA. Cesarean versus vaginal delivery in abruptio placentae associated with live fetuses. Int J Gynecol Obstet1985; 23: 471–4.
Besinger, RE, Niebyl, JR. The safety and efficacy of tocolytics agents for the treatment of preterm labor. Obstet Gynecol Surv1990; 45: 415–40.
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Tocolytic Drugs for Women in Preterm Labour. Green-top Guideline No. 1b. London: RCOG, 2011.
Towers, CV, Pircon, RA, Heppard, M. Is tocolysis safe in the management of third-trimester bleeding?Am J Obstet Gynecol1999; 180: 1572–8.
Colón, I, Berletti, M, Garabedian, MJ, et al. Randomized, double-blinded trial of magnesium sulfate tocolysis versus intravenous normal saline for preterm nonsevere placental abruption. Am J Perinatol2016; 33: 696–702. doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1571324.
Ruiter, L, Ravelli, AC, de Graaf, IM, Mol, BW, Pajkrt, E. Incidence and recurrence rate of placental abruption: a longitudinal linked national cohort study in the Netherlands. Am J Obstet Gynecol2015; 213: 573.e1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.06.019.
Roberge, S, Bujold, E, Nicolaides, KH. Meta-analysis on the effect of aspirin use for prevention of preeclampsia on placental abruption and antepartum hemorrhage. Am J Obstet Gynecol2018; 218: 483–9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.12.238.
Kim, YA. Makar, RS. Detection of fetomaternal hemorrhage. Am J Hematol2012; 87: 417–23.
Oyelese, KO, Turner, M, Lees, C, Campbell, S. Vasa previa: an avoidable obstetric tragedy. Obstet Gynecol2000; 18: 109–15.
Baulies, S, Maiz, N, Muñoz, A, et al.Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of vasa previa and analysis of risk factors. Prenat Diagn2007; 27: 595–9.
Englert, Y, Imbert, MC, Van Rosendael, E, et al.Morphological anomalies in the placentae of IVF pregnancies: preliminary report of a multicentric study. Hum Reprod1987; 2: 155–7.
Jauniaux, E, Englert, Y, Vanesse, M, et al.Pathologic features of placentas from singleton pregnancies obtained by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Obstet Gynecol1990; 76: 61–4.
Lee, W, Lee, VL, Kirk, JS, et al.Vasa previa: prenatal diagnosis, natural evolution, and clinical outcome. Obstet Gynecol2000; 95: 572–6.
Rebarber, A, Dolin, C, Fox, NS, et al.Natural history of vasa previa across gestation using a screening protocol. J Ultrasound Med2014; 33: 141–7.
Bronsteen, R, Whitten, A, Balasubramanian, M, et al.Vasa previa: clinical presentations, outcomes, and implications for management. Obstet Gynecol2013; 122: 352–7.
Gagnon, R, Morin, L, Bly, S, et al.Guidelines for the management of vasa previa. J Obstet Gynaecol Can2009; 31: 748–60.
Oyelese, Y, Catanzarite, V, Prefumo, F, et al.Vasa previa: the impact of prenatal diagnosis on outcomes. Obstet Gynecol2004; 103: 937–42.
Paavonen, J, Jouttunpää, K, Kangasluoma, P, et al.Velamentous insertion of the umbilical cord and vasa previa. Int J Gynaecol Obstet1984; 22: 207–11.
Watson, R. Antepartum haemorrhage of uncertain origin. Br J Clin Pract1982; 36: 222–6.
Macafee, CHG, Harley, JMG. Antepartum haemorrhage. In Claye, A (ed.), British Obstetric Practice: Obstetrics, 3rd edn. London: Heinemann, 1963, pp 195–204.
Willocks, J. Antepartum haemorrhage of uncertain origin. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw1971; 78: 987–91.
Naftolin, F, Khudr, G, Benirschke, K, Hutchinson, DL. The syndrome of chronic abruptio placentae, hydorrhoea and circumvallate placenta. Am J Obstet Gynecol1973; 116: 347–50.
Walker, J, MacGillivary, I, MacNaughton, MC (eds). Combined Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 9th edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1976, pp. 133–45.
Boyle, B, McConkey, R, Garne, E, et al.Trends in the prevalence, risk and pregnancy outcome of multiple births with congenital anomaly: a registry-based study in 14 European countries 1984–2007. BJOG2013; 120: 707–16.
Vayssiere, C, Benoist, G, Blondel, B, et al.Twin pregnancies: guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol2011; 156: 12–17.
Hall, JG. Twinning. Lancet2003; 362: 735–43.
Martin, JA, Hamilton, BE, Sutton, PD, et al.Births: final data for 2006. Natl Vital Stat Rep2009; 57: 1–102
Chauhan, SP, Scardo, JA, Hayes, E, Abuhamad, AZ, Berghella, V. Twins: prevalence, problems, and preterm births. Am J Obstet Gynecol2010; 203: 305–15.
Macfarlane, A, Blondel, B. Demographic trends in Western European countries. In Blickstein, I, Keith, LG (eds), Multiple Pregnancy: Epidemiology, Gestation, and Perinatal Outcome, 2nd edn. London: Taylor & Francis, 2005, pp. 11–21.
Weber, MA, Sebire, NJ. Genetics and developmental pathology of twinning. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med2010; 15: 313–18.
Benirschke, K, Kim, CK. Multiple pregnancy. 2. N Engl J Med1973; 288: 1329–36.
Derom, C, Vlietinck, R, Derom, R, Van den Berghe, H, Thiery, M. Increased monozygotic twinning rate after ovulation induction. Lancet1987; 1: 1236–8.
Umranikar, A, Parmar, D, Davies, S, Fountain, S. Multiple births following in vitro fertilization treatment: redefining success. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol2013; 170: 299–304.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fertility Problems: Assessment and Treatment. Clinical Guideline CG156. London: NICE, 2013. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg156 (accessed March 2017).
Luke, B, Brown, MB, Wantman, E, Stern, JE. Factors associated with monozygosity in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies and the risk of recurrence using linked cycles. Fertil Steril2014; 101: 683–9.
Glujovsky, D, Blake, D, Farquhar, C, Bardach, A. Cleavage stage versus blastocyst stage embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technology. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2012; (7): CD002118.
McLernon, D, Harrild, K, Bergh, C, et al.Clinical effectiveness of elective single versus double embryo transfer: meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. BMJ2010; 341: c6945.
Gelbaya, TA, Tsoumpou, I, Nardo, LG. The likelihood of live birth and multiple birth after single versus double embryo transfer at the cleavage stage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril2010; 94: 936–45.
Luke, B, Gopal, D, Cabral, H, et al.Adverse pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes in twins: effects of maternal fertility status and infant gender combinations; the Massachusetts Outcomes Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology. Am J Obstet Gynecol2017; 217: 330.e1–15. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.04.025.
Helmerhorst, FM, Perquin, DA, Donker, D, Keirse, MJ. Perinatal outcome of singletons and twins after assisted conception: a systematic review of controlled studies. BMJ2004; 328: 261.
Santana, DS, Cecatti, JG, Surita, FG, et al.Twin pregnancy and severe maternal outcomes: the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. Obstet Gynecol2016; 127: 631–41. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001338.
Rao, A, Sairam, S, Shehata, H. Obstetric complications of twin pregnancies. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol2004; 18: 557–76.
Sibai, BM, Hauth, J, Caritis, S, et al.Hypertensive disorders in twin versus singleton gestations. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Network of Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units. Am J Obstet Gynecol2000; 182: 938–42.
Laine, K, Murzakanova, G, Sole, KB, et al.Prevalence and risk of pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension in twin pregnancies: a population-based register study. BMJ Open2019; 9 (7): e029908. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029908.
Schwartz, DB, Daoud, Y, Zazula, P, et al.Gestational diabetes mellitus: metabolic and blood glucose parameters in singleton versus twin pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol1999; 181: 912–14.
Goldenberg, RL, Culhane, JF, Iams, JD, Romero, R. Epidemiology and causes of preterm birth. Lancet2008; 371: 75–84.
Blondel, B, Macfarlane, A, Gissler, M, Breart, G, Zeitlin, J. General obstetrics: preterm birth and multiple pregnancy in European countries participating in the PERISTAT project. BJOG2006; 113: 528–35.
Victoria, A, Mora, G, Arias, F. Perinatal outcome, placental pathology, and severity of discordance in monochorionic and dichorionic twins. Obstet Gynecol2001; 97: 310–15.
Ross, LE, McQueen, K, Vigod, S, Dennis, CL. Risk for postpartum depression associated with assisted reproductive technologies and multiple births: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update2011; 17: 96–106.
Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health (CEMACH). Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing Maternal Deaths to Make Motherhood Safe: 2003–2005. The Seventh Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. London: CEMACH, 2007.
Sebire, NAnomalous development in twins (including monozygotic duplication). In Kilby, M, Baker, P, Critchley, H, Field, D (eds), Multiple Pregnancy. London: RCOG Press; 2006, pp. 59–88.
Glinianaia, SV, Rankin, J, Wright, C. Congenital anomalies in twins: a register-based study. Hum Reprod2008; 23: 1306–11.
Morin, L, Lim, K, Bly, S, et al.Ultrasound in twin pregnancies: no. 260, June 2011. Int J Gynecol Obstet2011; 115: 117–18.
D’Antonio, F, Khalil, A, Dias, T, Thilaganathan, B. Early fetal loss in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies: analysis of the Southwest Thames Obstetric Research Collaborative (STORK) multiple pregnancy cohort. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2013; 41: 632–6.
Sebire, NJ, Thornton, S, Hughes, K, Snijders, RJ, Nicolaides, KH. The prevalence and consequences of missed abortion in twin pregnancies at 10 to 14 weeks of gestation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol1997; 104: 847–8.
Landy, H, Keith, L. The vanishing twin: a review. Hum Reprod Update1998; 4: 177–83.
Kamath, MS, Antonisamy, B, Selliah, HY, Sunkara, SK. Perinatal outcomes of singleton live births with and without vanishing twin following transfer of multiple embryos: analysis of 113 784 singleton live births. Hum Reprod2018; 33: 2018–22. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dey284.
Ong, S, Zamora, J, Khan, K, Kilby, M. Prognosis for the co-twin following single-twin death: a systematic review. BJOG2006; 113: 992–8.
Hillman, SC, Morris, RK, Kilby, MD. Co-twin prognosis after single fetal death: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol2011; 118: 928–40.
D’Antonio, F, Thilaganathan, B, Dias, T, et al. Influence of chorionicity and gestational age at single fetal loss on risk of preterm birth in twin pregnancy: analysis of STORK multiple pregnancy cohort. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2017; 50: 723–7. doi: 10.1002/uog.17426.
Breathnach, FM, McAuliffe, FM, Geary, M, et al.Definition of intertwin birth weight discordance. Obstet Gynecol2011; 118: 94–103.
Lewi, L, Deprest, J. Management of twin pregnancies: where do we go from here?Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2013; 41: 601–4.
Kalafat, E, Thilaganathan, B, Papageorghiou, A, Bhide, A, Khalil, A. Significance of placental cord insertion site in twin pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2018; 52: 378–84. doi: 10.1002/uog.18914.
Couck, I, Mourad Tawfic, N, Deprest, J, et al.Does site of cord insertion increase risk of adverse outcome, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome and discordant growth in monochorionic twin pregnancy?Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2018; 52: 385–9. doi: 10.1002/uog.18926.
Jones, R, Roberton, N. Small for dates babies: are they really a problem?Arch Dis Child1986; 61: 877–80.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 169: Multifetal gestations: twin, triplet, and higher-order multifetal pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol2016; 128: e131–46.
Miller, J, Chauhan, SP, Abuhamad, AZ. Discordant twins: diagnosis, evaluation and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol2012; 206: 10–20.
Ananth, CV, Joseph, K, Demissie, K, Vintzileos, AM. Trends in twin preterm birth subtypes in the United States, 1989 through 2000: impact on perinatal mortality. Am J Obstet Gynecol2005; 193: 1076.e1–9.
Kiely, JL. What is the population-based risk of preterm birth among twins and other multiples?Clin Obstet Gynecol1998; 41: 3–11.
Stoll, BJ, Hansen, NI, Bell, EF, et al.Neonatal outcomes of extremely preterm infants from the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics2010; 126: 443–56.
Murphy, D, MacKenzie, I. The mortality and morbidity associated with umbilical cord prolapse. Br J Obstet Gynaecol1995; 102: 826–30.
Cohen, M, Kohl, S, Rosenthal, A. Fetal interlocking complicating twin gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol1965; 91: 407–12.
Pharoah, P. Neurological outcome in twins. Semin Neonatol2002; 7: 223–30.
Draper, ES, Gallimore, ID, Kurinczuk, JJ, et al., on behalf of the MBRRACE-UK Collaboration. MBRRACE-UK Perinatal Mortality Surveillance Report, UK Perinatal Deaths for Births from January to December 2016. Leicester: Infant Mortality and Morbidity Studies, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, 2018.
Danon, D, Sekar, R, Hack, KE, Fisk, NM. Increased stillbirth in uncomplicated monochorionic twin pregnancies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol2013; 121: 1318–26.
Dube, J, Dodds, L, Armson, BA. Does chorionicity or zygosity predict adverse perinatal outcomes in twins?Am J Obstet Gynecol2002; 186: 579–83.
Barigye, O, Pasquini, L, Galea, P, et al.High risk of unexpected late fetal death in monochorionic twins despite intensive ultrasound surveillance: a cohort study. PLoS Med2005; 2 (6): e172.
Spitz, L. Conjoined twins. Prenat Diagn2005; 25: 814–19.
Mutchinick, OM, Luna-Muñoz, L, Amar, E, et al.Conjoined twins: a worldwide collaborative epidemiological study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet2011; 157C: 274–87.
Chen, CP, Hsu, CY, Su, JW, et al.Conjoined twins detected in the first trimester: a review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol2011; 50: 424–31.
Dias, T, Mahsud-Dornan, S, Bhide, A, Papageorghiou, AT, Thilaganathan, B. Cord entanglement and perinatal outcome in monoamniotic twin pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2010; 35: 201–4.
Baxi, LV, Walsh, CA. Monoamniotic twins in contemporary practice: a single-center study of perinatal outcomes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med2010; 23: 506–10.
Hack, KE, Derks, JB, Schaap, AH, et al.Perinatal outcome of monoamniotic twin pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol2009; 113: 353–60.
Rossi, AC, Prefumo, F. Impact of cord entanglement on perinatal outcome of monoamniotic twins: a systematic review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2013; 41: 131–5.
Sueters, M, Oepkes, D. Diagnosis of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, selective fetal growth restriction, twin anaemia-polycythaemia sequence, and twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol2014; 28: 215–26.
Khalil, A, Beune, I, Hecher, K, et al.Consensus definition and essential reporting parameters of selective fetal growth restriction in twin pregnancy: a Delphi procedure. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2019; 53: 47–54. doi: 10.1002/uog.19013.
Gratacos, E, Antolin, E, Lewi, L, et al.Monochorionic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction and intermittent absent or reversed end-diastolic flow (Type III): feasibility and perinatal outcome of fetoscopic placental laser coagulation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2008; 31: 669–75.
Gratacos, E, Lewi, L, Muñoz, B, et al.A classification system for selective intrauterine growth restriction in monochorionic pregnancies according to umbilical artery Doppler flow in the smaller twin. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2007; 30: 28–34.
Healey, MG. Acardia: predictive risk factors for the co-twin’s survival. Teratology1994; 50: 205–13.
Lewi, L, Valencia, C, Gonzalez, E, Deprest, J, Nicolaides, KH. The outcome of twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence diagnosed in the first trimester. Am J Obstet Gynecol2010; 203: 213.e1–4.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Intrauterine laser ablation of placental vessels for the treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. NICE Interventional Procedure Guidance IPG198. London: NICE, 2006. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ipg198 (accessed March 2017).
Denbow, M, Fogliani, R, Kyle, P, et al.Haematological indices at fetal blood sampling in monochorionic pregnancies complicated by feto-fetal transfusion syndrome. Prenat Diagn1998; 18: 941–6.
Stagnati, V, Zanardini, C, Fichera, A, et al. Early prediction of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2016. doi: 10.1002/uog.15989. [Epub ahead of print]
Mackie, FL, Whittle, R, Morris, RK, et al.First-trimester ultrasound measurements and maternal serum biomarkers as prognostic factors in monochorionic twins: a cohort study. Diagn Progn Res2019; 3: 9. doi: 10.1186/s41512-019-0054-9.
Quintero, RA, Morales, WJ, Allen, MH, et al.Staging of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. J Perinatol1999; 19: 550–5.
Lopriore, E, Oepkes, D, Walther, FJ. Neonatal morbidity in twin–twin transfusion syndrome. Early Hum Dev2011; 87: 595–9.
Tollenaar, LSA, Lopriore, E, Middeldorp, JM, et al.Improved prediction of twin anemia–polycythemia sequence by delta middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity: new antenatal classification system. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2019; 53: 788–93. doi: 10.1002/uog.20096.
Tavares de Sousa, M, Fonseca, A, Hecher, K. Role of fetal intertwin difference in middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in predicting neonatal twin anemia–polycythemia sequence. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2019; 53: 794–7. doi: 10.1002/uog.20116.
Ellings, JM, Newman, RB, Hulsey, TC, Bivins, HA, Keenan, A. Reduction in very low birth weight deliveries and perinatal mortality in a specialized, multidisciplinary twin clinic. Obstet Gynecol1993; 81: 387–91.
Newman, RB, Ellings, JM. Antepartum management of the multiple gestation: the case for specialized care. Semin Perinatol1995; 19: 387–403.
Ruk, RJ, Brown, CE, Peters, MT, Johnston, AB. Specialized care for twin gestations: improving newborn outcomes und reducing costs. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs2001; 30: 52–60.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Multiple pregnancy: twin and triplet pregnancies. NICE Quality Standard QS 46. London: NICE, 2013 (updated September 2019). https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs46 (accessed February 2020).
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Twin and Triplet Pregnancy. NICE Guideline NG137. London: NICE, 2019. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng137 (accessed December 2020).
Lewi, L, Lewi, P, Diemert, A, et al.The role of ultrasound examination in the first trimester and at 16 weeks’ gestation to predict fetal complications in monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol2008; 199: 493.e1–7.
Kurtz, A, Wapner, R, Mata, J, Johnson, A, Morgan, P. Twin pregnancies: accuracy of first-trimester abdominal US in predicting chorionicity and amnionicity. Radiology1992; 185: 759–62.
Monteagudo, A, Timor-Tritsch, IE, Sharma, S. Early and simple determination of chorionic and amniotic type in multifetal gestations in the first fourteen weeks by high-frequency transvaginal ultrasonography. Am J Obstet Gynecol1994; 170: 824–9.
Lu, J, Cheng, YKY, Ting, YH, Law, KM, Leung, TY. Pitfalls in assessing chorioamnionicity: novel observations and literature review. Am J Obstet Gynecol2018; 219: 242–54. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.02.010.
Dias, T, Ladd, S, Mahsud-Dornan, S, et al.Systematic labeling of twin pregnancies on ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2011; 38: 130–3.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Antenatal Care for Uncomplicated Pregnancies. NICE Clinical Guideline CG62. London: NICE, 2008. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg62 (accessed March 2017).
Spencer, KScreening for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies in the first trimester using free β-hCG and PAPP-A, combined with fetal nuchal translucency thickness. Prenat Diagn2000; 20: 91–5.
Gil, MM, Quezada, MS, Revello, R, Akolekar, R, Nicolaides, KH. Analysis of cell-free DNA in maternal blood in screening for fetal aneuploidies: updated meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2015; 45: 249–66.
Canick, JA, Kloza, EM, Lambert-Messerlian, GM, et al.DNA sequencing of maternal plasma to identify Down syndrome and other trisomies in multiple gestations. Prenat Diagn2012; 32: 730–4.
Attilakos, G, Maddocks, DG, Davies, T, et al.Quantification of free fetal DNA in multiple pregnancies and relationship with chorionicity. Prenat Diagn2011; 31: 967–72.
Leung, TY, Qu, JZ, Liao, GJ, et al.Noninvasive twin zygosity assessment and aneuploidy detection by maternal plasma DNA sequencing. Prenat Diagn2013; 33: 675–81.
Qu, JZ, Leung, TY, Jiang, P, et al.Noninvasive prenatal determination of twin zygosity by maternal plasma DNA analysis. Clin Chem2013; 59: 427–35.
American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecologists. Committee Opinion No. 640: Cell-free DNA screening for fetal aneuploidy. Obstet Gynecol2015; 126: e31–7.
Benn, P, Borrell, A, Chiu, RW, et al.Position statement from the Chromosome Abnormality Screening Committee on behalf of the Board of the International Society for Prenatal Diagnosis. Prenat Diagn2015; 35: 725–34.
Antsaklis, A, Daskalakis, G, Souka, AP, Kavalakis, Y, Michalas, S. Fetal blood sampling in twin pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2003; 22: 377–9.
D’Antonio, F, Odibo, AO, Prefumo, F, et al.Weight discordance and perinatal mortality in twin pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2018; 52: 11–23. doi: 10.1002/uog.18966.
Leombroni, M, Liberati, M, Fanfani, F, et al.Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting birth-weight discordance in twin pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2017; 50: 442–50. doi: 10.1002/uog.17348.
Townsend, R, Duffy, JM, Sileo, F, et al.; International Collaboration to Harmonise Outcomes for Selective Fetal Growth Restriction (CHOOSE-FGR). A core outcome set for studies investigating the management of selective fetal growth restriction in twins. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2019; doi: 10.1002/uog.20388.
Khalil, A, Duffy, JMN, Perry, H, et al.; International Collaboration to Harmonise Outcomes for Selective Fetal Growth Restriction (CHOOSE-FGR). Study protocol: developing, disseminating, and implementing a core outcome set for selective fetal growth restriction in monochorionic twin pregnancies. Trials2019; 20 (1): 35. doi: 10.1186/s13063-018-3153-y.
Ishii, K, Murakoshi, T, Takahashi, Y, Shinno, T, Matsushita, M, Naruse, H, et al.Perinatal outcome of monochorionic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction and different types of umbilical artery Doppler under expectant management. Fetal Diagn Ther2009; 26: 157–61.
Townsend, R, D’Antonio, F, Sileo, FG, et al.Perinatal outcome of monochorionic twin pregnancy complicated by selective fetal growth restriction according to management: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2019; 53: 36–46. doi: 10.1002/uog.20114.
Monaghan, C, Kalafat, E, Binder, J, Thilaganathan, B, Khalil, A. Prediction of adverse pregnancy outcome in monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy complicated by selective fetal growth restriction. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2019; 53: 200–7. doi: 10.1002/uog.19078.
Martin, JA, Hamilton, BE, Osterman, MJK, Curtin, SC, Mathews, TJ. National vital statistics reports. Births: final data for 2013–2015.
Breathnach, FM, McAuliffe, FM, Geary, M, et al.; Perinatal Ireland Research Consortium. Optimum timing for planned delivery of uncomplicated monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol2012; 119: 50–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e31823d7b06.
Conde-Agudelo A, Romero, R, Hassan, SS, Yeo, L. Transvaginal sonographic cervical length for the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth in twin pregnancies: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol2010; 203: 128.e1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2010.02.064.
Lee, YM. Delivery of twins. Semin Perinatol2012; 36: 195–200.
Singer, E, Pilpel, S, Bsat, F, Plevyak, M, Healy, A, Markenson, G. Accuracy of fetal fibronectin to predict preterm birth in twin gestations with symptoms of labor. Obstet Gynecol2007; 109: 1083–7.
Gyamfi, C, Lerner, V, Holzman, I, Stone, JL. Routine cervical length in twins and perinatal outcomes. Am J Perinatol2007; 24: 65–9.
da Silva Lopes, K, Takemoto, Y, Ota, E, Tanigaki, S, Mori, R. Bed rest with and without hospitalisation in multiple pregnancy for improving perinatal outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2017; (3): CD012031. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012031.pub2.
Sosa, C, Althabe, F, Belizan, J, Bergel, E. Bed rest in singleton pregnancies for preventing preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2004; (1): CD003581.
Norman, JE, Mackenzie, F, Owen, P, et al.Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancy (STOPPIT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and meta-analysis. Lancet2009; 373: 2034–40.
Dodd, JM, Grivell, RM, O’Brien, CM, Dowswell, T, Deussen, AR. Prenatal administration of progestogens for preventing spontaneous preterm birth in women with a multiple pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2019; (11). doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012024.pub3.
Schuit, E, Stock, S, Rode, L, et al.Effectiveness of progestogens to improve perinatal outcome in twin pregnancies: an individual participant data meta-analysis. BJOG2015; 122: 27–37.
Romero, R, Conde-Agudelo, A, El-Refaie, W, et al.Vaginal progesterone decreases preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality in women with a twin gestation and a short cervix: an updated meta‐analysis of individual patient data. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2017; 49: 303–14. doi: 10.1002/uog.17397.
Rafael, TJ, Berghella, V, Alfirevic, Z. Cervical stitch (cerclage) for preventing preterm birth in multiple pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2014; (9): CD009166.
Liem, SM, van Pampus, MG, Mol, BW, Bekedam, DJ. Cervical pessaries for the prevention of preterm birth: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Int2013; 2013: 576723.
Liem, S, Schuit, E, Hegeman, M, et al.Cervical pessaries for prevention of preterm birth in women with a multiple pregnancy (ProTWIN): a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet2013; 382: 1341–9.
Goya, M, Pratcorona, L, Merced, C, et al.Cervical pessary in 112 pregnant women with a short cervix (PECEP): an open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet2012; 379: 1800–6.
Nicolaides, KH, Syngelaki, A, Poon, LC, et al.Cervical pessary placement for prevention of preterm birth in unselected twin pregnancies: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol2016; 214(1): 3.e1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.08.051.
Pratcorona, L, Goya, M, Merced, C, et al.Cervical pessary to reduce preterm birth <34 weeks of gestation after an episode of preterm labor and a short cervix: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol2018; 219: 99.e1–16. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.04.031.
Thangatorai, R, Lim, FC, Nalliah, S. Cervical pessary in the prevention of preterm births in multiple pregnancies with a short cervix: PRISMA compliant systematic review and meta-analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med2018; 31: 1638–45. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1319930.
Norman, JE, Norrie, J, Maclennan, G, et al.Open randomised trial of the (Arabin) pessary to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancy with health economics and acceptability: STOPPIT-2 – a study protocol. BMJ Open2018; 8 (12): e026430. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026430.
Hashimoto, LN, Hornung, RW, Lindsell, CJ, Brewer, DE, Donovan, EF. Effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on outcomes of very low birth weight multifetal gestations. Am J Obstet Gynecol2002; 187: 804–10.
Kenyon, S, Brocklehurst, P, Jones, D, et al.; MRC ORACLE Children Study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth2008; 8: 14.
Doyle, LW, Crowther, CA, Middleton, P, Marret, S, Rouse, D. Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2009; (1): CD004661.
Wu, MY, Chen, SU, Lee, CN, Ho, HN, Yang, YS. Use of atosiban in a twin pregnancy with extremely preterm premature rupture in the membrane of one twin: a case report and literature review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol2010; 49: 495–9.
Cheung, KW, Seto, MTY, Wang, W, et al. Effect of delayed interval delivery of remaining fetus(es) in multiple pregnancies on survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol2020; 222: 306–319.e18. https://doi.org//10.1016/j.ajog.2019.07.046.
Dodd, J, Crowther, C. Multifetal pregnancy reduction of triplet and higher-order multiple pregnancies to twins. Fertil Steril2004; 81: 1420–2.
Wimalasundera, RC. Selective reduction and termination of multiple pregnancies. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med2010; 15: 327–35.
Devine, PC, Malone, FD, Athanassiou, A, Harvey-Wilkes, K, D’Alton, ME. Maternal and neonatal outcome of 100 consecutive triplet pregnancies. Am J Perinatol2001; 18: 225–35.
Petterson, B, Nelson, KB, Watson, L, Stanley, F. Twins, triplets, and cerebral palsy in births in Western Australia in the 1980s. BMJ1993; 307: 1239–43.
Curado, J, D'antonio, F, Papageorghiou, AT, et al. Perinatal mortality and morbidity in triplet pregnancy according to chorionicity: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2019; 54: 589–95. https://doi.org//10.1002/uog.20209.
Antsaklis, A, Anastasakis, E. Selective reduction in twins and multiple pregnancies. J Perinat Med2011; 39: 15–21.
Zipori, Y, Haas, J, Berger, H, Barzilay, E. Multifetal pregnancy reduction of triplets to twins compared with non-reduced triplets: a meta-analysis. Reprod Biomed Online2017; 35: 296–304. doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2017.05.012.
Anthoulakis, C, Dagklis, T, Mamopoulos, A, Athanasiadis, A. Risks of miscarriage or preterm delivery in trichorionic and dichorionic triplet pregnancies with embryo reduction versus expectant management: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod2017; 32: 1351–9. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dex084.
Dodd, JM, Crowther, CA. Reduction of the number of fetuses for women with a multiple pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2012; (10): CD003932.
Evans, MI, Goldberg, JD, Horenstein, J, et al.Selective termination for structural, chromosomal, and Mendelian anomalies: international experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol1999; 181: 893–7.
Evans, MI, Goldberg, JD, Dommergues, M, et al.Efficacy of second-trimester selective termination for fetal abnormalities: international collaborative experience among the world’s largest centers. Am J Obstet Gynecol1994; 171: 90–4.
Rossi, AC, D’Addario, V. Umbilical cord occlusion for selective feticide in complicated monochorionic twins: a systematic review of literature. Am J Obstet Gynecol2009; 200: 123–9.
MONOMONO Working Group. Inpatient vs outpatient management and timing of delivery of uncomplicated monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancy: the MONOMONO study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2019; 53: 175–83. https://doi.org//10.1002/uog.19179.
Hillman, S, Morris, R, Kilby, M. Single twin demise: consequence for survivors. Semin Fetal Neonat Med2010; 15: 319–26.
Mackie, FL, Rigby, A, Morris, RK, Kilby, MD. Prognosis of the co-twin following spontaneous single intrauterine fetal death in twin pregnancies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG2019; 126: 569–78. https://doi.org//10.1111/1471-0528.15530.
Righini, A, Salmona, S, Bianchini, E, et al.Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of ischemic brain lesions in the survivors of monochorionic twin pregnancies: report of 3 cases. J Comput Assist Tomogr2004; 28: 87–92.
Senat, MV, Bernard, JP, Loizeau, S, Ville, Y. Management of single fetal death in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: a role for fetal blood sampling. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2002; 20: 360–3.
Tanawattanacharoen, S, Taylor, MJ, Letsky, EA, et al.Intrauterine rescue transfusion in monochorionic multiple pregnancies with recent single intrauterine death. Prenat Diagn2001; 21: 274–8.
Brassard, M, Fouron, JC, Leduc, L, Grignon, A, Proulx, F. Prognostic markers in twin pregnancies with an acardiac fetus. Obstet Gynecol1999; 94: 409–14.
Mone, F, Devaseelan, P, Ong, S. Intervention versus a conservative approach in the management of TRAP sequence: a systematic review. J Perinat Med2016; 44: 619–29.
Chaveeva, P, Poon, LC, Sotiriadis, A, Kosinski, P, Nicolaides, KH. Optimal method and timing of intrauterine intervention in twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence: case study and meta-analysis. Fetal Diagn Ther2014; 35: 267–79.
Cabassa, P, Fichera, A, Prefumo, F, et al.The use of radiofrequency in the treatment of twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence: a case series and review of the literature. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol2013; 166: 127–32.
Lopriore, E, Sueters, M, Middeldorp, JM, et al.Neonatal outcome in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome treated with fetoscopic laser occlusion of vascular anastomoses. J Pediatr2005; 147: 597–602.
Khalil, A, Cooper, E, Townsend, R, Thilaganathan, B. Evolution of stage 1 twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS): systematic review and meta-analysis. Twin Res Hum Genet2016; 19: 207–16. doi: 10.1017/thg.2016.33.
Roberts, D, Neilson, JP, Kilby, MD, Gates, S. Interventions for the treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2014; (1): CD002073.
Senat, MV, Deprest, J, Boulvain, M, et al.Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amnioreduction for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. N Engl J Med2004; 351: 136–44.
Crombleholme, TM, Shera, D, Lee, H, et al.A prospective, randomized, multicenter trial of amnioreduction vs selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation for the treatment of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol2007; 197: 396.e1–9.
Rossi, AC, D’Addario, V. The efficacy of Quintero staging system to assess severity of twin-twin transfusion syndrome treated with laser therapy: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Am J Perinatol2009; 26: 537–44.
Lopriore, E, Middeldorp, JM, Oepkes, D, et al.Residual anastomoses after fetoscopic laser surgery in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: frequency, associated risks and outcome. Placenta2007; 28: 204–8.
Robyr, R, Lewi, L, Salomon, LJ, et al.Prevalence and management of late fetal complications following successful selective laser coagulation of chorionic plate anastomoses in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol2006; 194: 796–803.
Dhillon, RK, Hillman, SC, Pounds, R, Morris, RK, Kilby, MD. Comparison of Solomon technique against selective laser ablation for twin-twin transfusion syndrome: a systematic review. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2015; 46: 526–31.
van Klink, JM, Koopman, HM, van Zwet, EW, et al.Improvement in neurodevelopmental outcome in survivors of twin-twin transfusion syndrome treated with laser surgery. Am J Obstet Gynecol2014; 210: 540.e1–7.
Morris, RK, Selman, TJ, Harbidge, A, Martin, WI, Kilby, MD. Fetoscopic laser coagulation for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: factors influencing perinatal outcome, learning curve of the procedure and lessons for new centres. BJOG2010; 117: 1350–7.
Beck, V, Lewi, P, Gucciardo, L, Devlieger, R. Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and fetal survival after minimally invasive fetal surgery: a systematic review of the literature. Fetal Diagn Ther2012; 31: 1–9.
Yamamoto, M, El Murr, L, Robyr, R, et al.Incidence and impact of perioperative complications in 175 fetoscopy-guided laser coagulations of chorionic plate anastomoses in fetofetal transfusion syndrome before 26 weeks of gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol2005; 193: 1110–16.
Rossi, AC, D’Addario, V. Comparison of donor and recipient outcomes following laser therapy performed for twin-twin transfusion syndrome: a meta-analysis and review of literature. Am J Perinatol2009; 26: 27–32.
Herberg, U, Gross, W, Bartmann, P, et al.Long term cardiac follow up of severe twin to twin transfusion syndrome after intrauterine laser coagulation. Heart2006; 92: 95–100.
Lopriore, E, Slaghekke, F, Oepkes, D, et al.Hematological characteristics in neonates with twin anemia–polycythemia sequence (TAPS). Prenat Diagn2010; 30: 251–5.
Leung, TY, Tam, WH, Leung, TN, Lok, IH, Lau, TK. Effect of twin-to-twin delivery interval on umbilical cord blood gas in the second twins. BJOG2002; 109: 63–7.
Dodd, JM, Deussen, AR, Grivell, RM, Crowther, CA. Elective birth at 37 weeks’ gestation for women with an uncomplicated twin pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2014; (2): CD003582.
Dodd, JM, Crowther, CA, Haslam, RR, Robinson, JS. Elective birth at 37 weeks of gestation versus standard care for women with an uncomplicated twin pregnancy at term: the Twins Timing of Birth Randomised Trial. BJOG2012; 119: 964–73.
Morales, WJ, O’BRIEN, WF, Knuppel, RA, Gaylord, S, Hayes, P. The effect of mode of delivery on the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage in nondiscordant twin gestations under 1500 g. Obstet Gynecol1989; 73: 107–10.
Hofmeyr, GJ, Barrett, JF, Crowther, CA. Planned caesarean section for women with a twin pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015; (12): CD006553. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006553.pub3.
Hogle, KL, Hutton, EK, McBrien, KA, Barrett, JF, Hannah, ME. Cesarean delivery for twins: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol2003; 188: 220–7.
Hannah, ME, Hannah, WJ, Hewson, SA, et al.Planned caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: a randomised multicentre trial. Lancet2000; 356: 1375–83.
Hofmeyr, GJ, Hannah, M, Lawrie, TA. Planned caesarean section for term breech delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015; (7): CD000166.
Rossi, AC, Mullin, PM, Chmait, RH. Neonatal outcomes of twins according to birth order, presentation and mode of delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG2011; 118: 523–32.
Barrett, JF, Hannah, ME, Hutton, EK, et al.; Twin Birth Study Collaborative Group. A randomized trial of planned cesarean or vaginal delivery for twin pregnancy. N Engl J Med2013; 369: 1295–305.
Wildschut, H, van Roosmalen, J, van Leeuwen, E, Keirse, MJ. Planned abdominal compared with planned vaginal birth in triplet pregnancies. Br J Obstet Gynaecol1995; 102: 292–6.
Stutchfield, P, Whitaker, R, Russell, I. Antenatal betamethasone and incidence of neonatal respiratory distress after elective caesarean section: pragmatic randomised trial. BMJ2005; 331: 662.
Fox, NS, Silverstein, M, Bender, S, et al.Active second-stage management in twin pregnancies undergoing planned vaginal delivery in a US population. Obstet Gynecol2010; 115: 229–33.
Myles, T. Vaginal birth of twins after a previous Cesarean section. J Matern Fetal Med2001; 10: 171–4.
D’Antonio, F, Dias, T, Thilaganathan, B; Southwest Thames Obstetric Research Collaborative (STORK). Does antenatal ultrasound labeling predict birth order in twin pregnancies?Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2013; 41: 274–7.
Yang, Q, Wen, SW, Chen, Y, et al.Neonatal death and morbidity in vertex-nonvertex second twins according to mode of delivery and birth weight. Am J Obstet Gynecol2005; 192: 840–7.
Yang, Q, Wen, SW, Chen, Y, et al.Neonatal mortality and morbidity in vertex-vertex second twins according to mode of delivery and birth weight. J Perinatol2006; 26: 3–10.
Rydhstrom, H. Prognosis for twins with birth weight less than 1500 gm: the impact of cesarean section in relation to fetal presentation. Am J Obstet Gynecol1990; 163: 528–33.
Acker, D, Lieberman, M, Holbrook, RH, et al.Delivery of the second twin. Obstet Gynecol1982; 59: 710–11.
Chervenak, FA, Johnson, RE, Berkowitz, RL, Hobbins, JC. Intrapartum external version of the second twin. Obstet Gynecol1983; 62: 160–5.
Chauhan, SP, Roberts, WE, McLaren, RA, et al.Delivery of the nonvertex second twin: breech extraction versus external cephalic version. Am J Obstet Gynecol1995; 173: 1015–20.
Webster, SN, Loughney, AD. Internal podalic version with breech extraction. Obstetrician & Gynaecologist2011; 13: 7–14.
Rayburn, WF, Lavin, JP, Miodovnik, M, Varner, MW. Multiple gestation: time interval between delivery of the first and second twins. Obstet Gynecol1984; 63: 502–6.
Thompson, SA, Lyons, TL, Makowski, EL. Outcomes of twin gestations at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1973–1983. J Reprod Med1987; 32: 328–39.
Chervenak, FA, Johnson, RE, Youcha, S, Hobbins, JC, Berkowitz, RL. Intrapartum management of twin gestation. Obstet Gynecol1985; 65: 119–24.
Rydhstrom, H, Ingemarsson, I. Interval between birth of the first and the second twin and its impact on second twin perinatal mortality. J Perinat Med1990; 18: 449–53.
Wen, SW, Demissie, K, Yang, Q, Walker, MC. Maternal morbidity and obstetric complications in triplet pregnancies and quadruplet and higher-order multiple pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol2004; 191: 254–8.
Pandian, Z, Marjoribanks, J, Ozturk, O, Serour, G, Bhattacharya, S. Number of embryos for transfer following in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2013; (7): CD003416.
Sepulveda, W, Sebire, NJ, Hughes, K, Odibo, A, Nicolaides, KH. The lambda sign at 10–14 weeks of gestation as a predictor of chorionicity in twin pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol1996; 7: 421–3.
Campbell, DM, Templeton, A. Maternal complications of twin pregnancy. Int J Gynecol Obstet2004; 84: 71–3.
Cotter, A, Ness, A, Tolosa, J. Prophylactic oxytocin for the third stage of labour (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev2001; (4): CD001808.
World Health Organization. WHO: recommended definitions, terminology and format for statistical tables related to the perinatal period and use of a new certificate for cause of perinatal deaths. Modifications recommended by FIGO as amended October 14, 1976. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand1977; 56: 247–53.
Steer, P. The epidemiology of preterm labour. BJOG2005; 112 (s1): 1–3.
Blencowe, H, Cousens, S, Chou, D, et al.Born too soon: the global epidemiology of 15 million preterm births. Reprod Health2013; 10 (Suppl 1): S2.
Goldenberg, RL, Culhane, JF, Iams, JD, Romero, R. Epidemiology and causes of preterm birth. Lancet2008; 371: 75–84.
Blencowe, H, Cousens, S, Oestergaard, MZ, et al. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: a systematic analysis and implications. Lancet2012; 379: 2162–72.
Lawn, J, Kerber, K, Enweronu-Laryea, C, Cousens, S. 3.6 million neonatal deaths: what is progressing and what is not?Semin Perinatol2010; 34: 371–86.
Winkvist, A, Mogren, I, Högberg, U. Familial patterns in birth characteristics: impact on individual and population risks. Int J Epidemiol1998; 27: 248–54.
Shah, PS, Shah, V. Influence of the maternal birth status on offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand2009; 88: 1307–18. doi: 10.3109/00016340903358820.
Strauss, JF, Romero, R, Gomez-Lopez, N, et al. Spontaneous preterm birth: advances toward the discovery of genetic predisposition. Am J Obstet Gynecol2018; 218: 294–314.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.12.009.
Smid, MC, Lee, JH, Grant, JH, et al. Maternal race and intergenerational preterm birth recurrence. Am J Obstet Gynecol2017; 217: 480.e1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.05.051.
Esplin, MS, Manuck, TA, Varner, MW, et al. Cluster analysis of spontaneous preterm birth phenotypes identifies potential associations among preterm birth mechanisms. Am J Obstet Gynecol2015; 213: 429.e1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.06.011.
Menon, R, Velez, DR, Thorsen, P, et al. Ethnic differences in key candidate genes for spontaneous preterm birth: TNF-alpha and its receptors. Hum Hered2006; 62: 107–18.
Engel, SA, Erichsen, HC, Savitz, DA, et al. Risk of spontaneous preterm birth is associated with common proinflammatory cytokine polymorphisms. Epidemiology2005; 16: 469–77.
Zhang, G, Feenstra, B, Bacelis, J, et al. Genetic associations with gestational duration and spontaneous preterm birth. N Engl J Med2017; 377: 1156–67. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1612665.
Moore, T, Hennessy, EM, Myles, J, et al.Neurological and developmental outcome in extremely preterm children born in England in 1995 and 2006: the EPICure studies. BMJ2012; 345: e7961.
Costeloe, K, Hennessy, E, Gibson, AT, Marlow, N, Wilkinson, AR. The EPICure study: outcomes to discharge from hospital for infants born at the threshold of viability. Pediatrics2000; 106: 659–71.
Costeloe, KL, Hennessy, EM, Haider, S, et al.Short term outcomes after extreme preterm birth in England: comparison of two birth cohorts in 1995 and 2006 (the EPICure studies). BMJ2012; 345: e7976.
Wood, N, Costeloe, K, Gibson, A, et al.The EPICure study: associations and antecedents of neurological and developmental disability at 30 months of age following extremely preterm birth. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed2005; 90: F134–40.
Mangham, LJ, Petrou, S, Doyle, LW, Draper, ES, Marlow, N. The cost of preterm birth throughout childhood in England and Wales. Pediatrics2009; 123: e312–27.
Butler, AS, Behrman, RE. Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2007.
Goldenberg, RL, Iams, JD, Mercer, BM, et al.The preterm prediction study: the value of new vs standard risk factors in predicting early and all spontaneous preterm births. NICHD MFMU Network. Am J Public Health1998; 88: 233–8.
Mercer, BM, Goldenberg, RL, Moawad, AH, et al.The preterm prediction study: effect of gestational age and cause of preterm birth on subsequent obstetric outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol1999; 181: 1216–21.
McManemy, J, Cooke, E, Amon, E, Leet, TRecurrence risk for preterm delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol2007; 196: 576.e1–6.
Crane, JM, Delaney, T, Hutchens, D. Transvaginal ultrasonography in the prediction of preterm birth after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol2006; 107: 37–44.
Castanon, A, Brocklehurst, P, Evans, H, et al.Risk of preterm birth after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among women attending colposcopy in England: retrospective–prospective cohort study. BMJ2012; 345: e5174.
Levine, LD, Sammel, MD, Hirshberg, A, Elovitz, MA, Srinivas, SK. Does stage of labor at time of cesarean delivery affect risk of subsequent preterm birth?Am J Obstet Gynecol2015; 212: 360.e1–7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.09.035.
Watson, HA, Ridout, A, Shennan, AH. Second stage cesarean as risk factor for preterm birth: how to manage subsequent pregnancies?Am J Obstet Gynecol2018; 218: 367–8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.11.589.
Hickland MM, Story L, Glazewska-Hallin A, et al. Efficacy of transvaginal cervical cerclage in women at risk of preterm birth following previous emergency cesarean section. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand2020; 99: 1486–91. https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13972.
Meis, PJ, Goldenberg, RL, Mercer, BM, et al.The preterm prediction study: risk factors for indicated preterm births. Am J Obstet Gynecol1998; 178: 562–7.
Homer, HA, Li, TC, Cooke, ID. The septate uterus: a review of management and reproductive outcome. Fertil Steril2000; 73: 1–14.
Tomaževič, T, Ban-Frangež, H, Ribič-Pucelj, M, Premru-Sršen, T, Verdenik, I. Small uterine septum is an important risk variable for preterm birth. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol2007; 135: 154–7.
Da Silva, AA, Simões, VM, Barbieri, MA, et al.Young maternal age and preterm birth. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol2003; 17: 332–9.
Brett, K, Strogatz, D, Savitz, D. Employment, job strain, and preterm delivery among women in North Carolina. Am J Public Health1997; 87: 199–204.
Hendler, I, Goldenberg, RL, Mercer, BM, et al.The Preterm Prediction Study: association between maternal body mass index and spontaneous and indicated preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol2005; 192: 882–6.
Reagan, PB, Salsberry, PJ. Race and ethnic differences in determinants of preterm birth in the USA: broadening the social context. Soc Sci Med2005; 60: 2217–28.
Simhan, HN, Bodnar, LM. Pre-pregnancy body mass index, vaginal inflammation, and the racial disparity in preterm birth. Am J Epidemiol2006; 163: 459–66.
Zhang, J, Savitz, DA. Preterm birth subtypes among blacks and whites. Epidemiology1992; 3: 428–33.
Balchin, I, Steer, PJ. Race, prematurity and immaturity. Early Hum Dev2007; 83: 749–54.
Menon, R, Fortunato, SJ, Edwards, DR, Williams, SM. Association of genetic variants, ethnicity and preterm birth with amniotic fluid cytokine concentrations. Ann Hum Genet2010; 74: 165–83.
Creasy, RK, Gummer, BA, Liggins, GC. System for predicting spontaneous preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol1980; 55: 692–5.
Honest, H, Bachmann, L, Sundaram, R, et al.The accuracy of risk scores in predicting preterm birth: a systematic review. J Obstet Gynecol2004; 24: 343–59.
Hillier, SL, Witkin, SS, Krohn, MA, et al.The relationship of amniotic fluid cytokines and preterm delivery, amniotic fluid infection, histologic chorioamnionitis, and chorioamnion infection. Obstet Gynecol1993; 81: 941–8.
Gomez, R, Ghezzi, F, Romero, R, et al.Premature labor and intra-amniotic infection. Clinical aspects and role of the cytokines in diagnosis and pathophysiology. Clin Perinatol1995; 22: 281–342.
Greig, PC, Ernest, J, Teot, L, Erikkson, M, Talley, R. Amniotic fluid interleukin-6 levels correlate with histologic chorioamnionitis and amniotic fluid cultures in patients in premature labor with intact membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol1993; 169: 1035–44.
Simhan, HN, Caritis, SN, Krohn, MA, et al.Decreased cervical proinflammatory cytokines permit subsequent upper genital tract infection during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol2003; 189: 560–7.
Wei, SQ, Fraser, W, Luo, ZC. Inflammatory cytokines and spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol2010; 116: 393–401.
Abbott, DS, Chin-Smith, EC, Seed, PT, et al.Raised Trappin2/elafin protein in cervico-vaginal fluid is a potential predictor of cervical shortening and spontaneous preterm birth. PloS one2014; 9: e100771.
Stock, SJ, Duthie, L, Tremaine, T, et al.Elafin (SKALP/Trappin-2/proteinase inhibitor-3) is produced by the cervix in pregnancy and cervicovaginal levels are diminished in bacterial vaginosis. Reprod Sci2009; 16: 1125–34.
Espinoza, J, Chaiworapongsa, T, Romero, R, et al.Antimicrobial peptides in amniotic fluid: defensins, calprotectin and bacterial/permeability-increasing protein in patients with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, intra-amniotic inflammation, preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med2003; 13: 2–21.
Rubens, CE, Sadovsky, Y, Muglia, L, et al.Prevention of preterm birth: harnessing science to address the global epidemic. Sci Transl Med2014; 262: 262sr5.
Racicot, K, Cardenas, I, Wunsche, V, et al.Viral infection of the pregnant cervix predisposes to ascending bacterial infection. J Immunol2013; 191: 934–41.
Madinger, NE, Greenspoon, JS, Gray Ellrodt, A. Pneumonia during pregnancy: has modern technology improved maternal and fetal outcome?Am J Obstet Gynecol1989; 161: 657–62.
Goodnight, WH, Soper, DE. Pneumonia in pregnancy. Crit Care Med2005; 33: S390–7.
Romero, R, Oyarzun, E, Mazor, M, et al.Meta-analysis of the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and preterm delivery/low birth weight. Obstet Gynecol1989; 73: 576–82.
Leitich, H, Bodner-Adler, B, Brunbauer, M, et al.Bacterial vaginosis as a risk factor for preterm delivery: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol2003; 189: 139–47.
Chandiramani, M, Seed, PT, Orsi, NM, et al.Limited relationship between cervico-vaginal fluid cytokine profiles and cervical shortening in women at high risk of spontaneous preterm birth. PloS one2012; 7: e52412.
Hirsch, E, Saotome, I, Hirsch, D. A model of intrauterine infection and preterm delivery in mice. Am J Obstet Gynecol1995; 172: 1598–603.
Gibbs, RS, McDuffie, RS, Kunze, M, et al.Experimental intrauterine infection with Prevotella bivia in New Zealand White rabbits. Am J Obstet Gynecol2004; 190: 1082–6.
McDuffie, R, Sherman, MP, Gibbs, RS. Amniotic fluid tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 in a rabbit model of bacterially induced preterm pregnancy loss. Am J Obstet Gynecol1992; 167: 1583–8.
Romero, R, Mazor, M, Wu, YK, et al.Infection in the pathogenesis of preterm labor. Semin Perinatol1988; 12: 262–79.
Fidel, P, Ghezzi, F, Romero, R, et al.The effect of antibiotic therapy on intrauterine infection-induced preterm parturition in rabbits. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med2003; 14: 57–64.
Amsel, R, Totten, PA, Spiegel, CA, et al.Nonspecific vaginitis: diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations. Am J Med1983; 74: 14–22.
Brocklehurst, P, Gordon, A, Heatley, E, Milan, SJ. Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2013; (1): CD000262.
Leitich, H, Kiss, H. Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis and intermediate flora as risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol2007; 21: 375–90.
Vermeulen, GM, Bruinse, HW. Prophylactic administration of clindamycin 2% vaginal cream to reduce the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth in women with an increased recurrence risk: a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Br J Obstet Gynaecol1999; 106: 652–7.
Shennan, A, Crawshaw, S, Briley, A, et al.A randomised controlled trial of metronidazole for the prevention of preterm birth in women positive for cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin: the PREMET Study. BJOG2006; 113: 65–74.
Kurkinen-Räty, M, Vuopala, S, Koskela, M, et al.A randomised controlled trial of vaginal clindamycin for early pregnancy bacterial vaginosis. BJOG2000; 107: 1427–32.
Othman, M, Neilson, J, Alfirevic, Z. Probiotics for preventing preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2007; (1): CD005941.
Nicolle, LE, Bradley, S, Colgan, R, et al.Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults. Clin Infect Dis2005; 40: 643–54.
Zalmanovici Trestioreanu, A, Lador, A, Sauerbrun-Cutler, MT, Leibovici, L, Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015; (4): CD009534.
Meiss, PJ, Michielutte, R, Peters, T, et al.Factors associated with preterm birth in Cardiff, Wales: II. Indicated and spontaneous preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol1995; 173: 597–602.
Villar, J, Gulmezoglu, AM, De Onis, M. Nutritional and antimicrobial interventions to prevent preterm birth: an overview of randomized controlled trials. Obstet Gynecol Surv1998; 53: 575–85.
Smaill, FM, Vazquez, JC. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2007; (8): CD000490.
Heath, V, Southall, T, Souka, A, Novakov, A, Nikolaides, KH. Cervical length at 23 weeks of gestation: relation to demographic characteristics and previous obstetric history. Ultrasound Obst Gynecol1998; 12: 304–11.
Iams, JD, Goldenberg, RL, Meis, PJ, et al.The length of the cervix and the risk of spontaneous premature delivery. N Eng J Med1996; 334: 567–73.
Onek, JD, Iams, J, Blumenfeld, M, et al.Measurement of cervical length in pregnancy: comparison between vaginal ultrasonography and digital examination. Obstet Gynecol1990; 76: 172–5.
To, M, Skentou, C, Chan, C, Zagaliki, A, Nikolaides, KH. Cervical assessment at the routine 23-week scan: standardizing techniques. Ultrasound Obst Gynecol2001; 17: 217–19.
Guzman, E, Walters, C, Ananth, C, et al.A comparison of sonographic cervical parameters in predicting spontaneous preterm birth in high-risk singleton gestations. Ultrasound Obst Gynecol2001; 18: 204–10.
Owen, J, Yost, N, Berghella, V, et al.Midtrimester endovaginal sonography in women at high risk for spontaneous preterm birth. JAMA2001; 286: 1340–8.
Watson, WJ, Stevens, D, Welter, S, Day, D. Observations on the sonographic measurement of cervical length and the risk of premature birth. J Matern Fetal Med1999; 8: 17–19
Berghella, V, Tolosa, JE, Kuhlman, K, et al.Cervical ultrasonography compared with manual examination as a predictor of preterm delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol1997; 177: 723–30.
Andrews, WW, Copper, R, Hauth, JC, et al.Second-trimester cervical ultrasound: associations with increased risk for recurrent early spontaneous delivery. Obstet Gynecol2000; 95: 222–6.
Cook, CM, Ellwood, D. The cervix as a predictor of preterm delivery in “at-risk” women. Ultrasound Obst Gynecol2000; 15: 109–13.
Hassan, SS, Romero, R, Berry, SM, et al.Patients with an ultrasonographic cervical length ≤ 15 mm have nearly a 50% risk of early spontaneous preterm delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol2000; 182: 1458–67.
Fuchs, I, Henrich, W, Osthues, K, Dudenhausen, JW. Sonographic cervical length in singleton pregnancies with intact membranes presenting with threatened preterm labor. Ultrasound Obst Gynecol2004; 24: 554–7.
Sotiriadis, A, Papatheodorou, S, Kavvadias, A, Makrydimas, G. Transvaginal cervical length measurement for prediction of preterm birth in women with threatened preterm labor: a meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obst Gynecol2010; 35: 54–64.
Martin, JA, Hamilton, BE, Ventura, SJ, et al.Births: final data for 2011. Natl Vital Stat Rep2013; 62: 1–90.
Lim, AC, Hegeman, MA, Huis In ‘T Veld, MA, et al.Cervical length measurement for the prediction of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies: a systematic review and bivariate meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obst Gynecol2011; 38: 10–17.
Fox, NS, Rebarber, A, Klauser, CK, et al.Prediction of spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic twin pregnancies using the change in cervical length over time. Am J Obstet Gynecol2010; 202: 155.e1–4.
Hofmeister, C, Brizot, MdeL, Liao, A, Francisco, RP, Zugaib, M. Two-stage transvaginal cervical length screening for preterm birth in twin pregnancies. J Perinat Med2010; 38: 479–84.
Oh, KJ, Park, KH, Jeong, EH, et al.The change in cervical length over time as a predictor of preterm delivery in asymptomatic women with twin pregnancies who have a normal mid-trimester cervical length. Twin Res Hum Genet2012; 15: 516–21.
Khalil, MI, Alzahrani, MH, Ullah, A. The use of cervical length and change in cervical length for prediction of spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic twin pregnancies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol2013; 169: 193–6.
Conde-Agudelo, A, Romero, R. Prediction of preterm birth in twin gestations using biophysical and biochemical tests. Am J Obstet Gynecol2014; 211: 583–95.
McLaren, JS, Hezelgrave, NL, Ayubi, H, Seed, P, Shennan, AH. Prediction of spontaneous preterm birth using quantitative fetal fibronectin after recent sexual intercourse. Am J Obstet Gynecol2015; 212: 89.e1–5.
Hezelgrave, NL, Kuhrt, K, Cottam, K, et al.The effect of blood staining on cervicovaginal quantitative fetal fibronectin concentration and prediction of spontaneous preterm birth. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol2017; 208: 103–8.
Lockwood, CJ, Senyei, AE, Dische, MR, et al.Fetal fibronectin in cervical and vaginal secretions as a predictor of preterm delivery. N Engl J Med1991; 325: 669–74
Shennan, AH, Jones, G, Haken, J, et al.Fetal fibronectin test predicts delivery before 30 weeks of gestation in high risk women, but increases anxiety. BJOG2005; 112: 293–8.
Goepfert, AR, Goldenberg, RL, Mercer, B, et al.The Preterm Prediction Study: Quantitative fetal fibronectin values and the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol2000; 183: 1480–3.
Honest, H, Bachmann, LM, Gupta, JK, Kleijnen, J, Khan, KS. Accuracy of cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin test in predicting risk of spontaneous preterm birth: systematic review. BMJ2002; 325: 301.
Iams, JD, Casal, D, McGregor, JA, et al.Fetal fibronectin improves the accuracy of diagnosis of preterm labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol1995; 173: 141–5.
Abbott, DA, Hezelgrave, NL, Seed, PT, et al.Quantitative fetal fibronectin to predict preterm Birth in asymptomatic women at high risk. Obstet Gynecol2015; 125: 1168–76.
Abbott, DS, Radford, SK, Seed, PT, Tribe, RM, Shennan, AH. Evaluation of a quantitative fetal fibronectin test for spontaneous preterm birth in symptomatic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol2013; 208: 122.e1–6.
DeFranco, EA, Lewis, DF, Odibo, AO. Improving the screening accuracy for preterm labor: is the combination of fetal fibronectin and cervical length in symptomatic patients a useful predictor of preterm birth? A systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol2013; 208: 233.e1–6.
Kuhrt K, Hezelgrave-Elliott N, Stock SJ, et al. Quantitative fetal fibronectin for prediction of preterm birth in asymptomatic twin pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand2020; 99: 1191–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13861.
Watson, HA, Seed, PT, Carter, J, et al. Development and validation of the predictive models for the QUiPP App v.2: a tool for predicting preterm birth in high-risk asymptomatic women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2019 Jul 20. doi: 10.1002/uog.20401.
Carter, J, Seed, PT, Watson, HA, et al. Development and validation of prediction models for the QUiPP App v.2: a tool for predicting preterm birth in women with symptoms of threatened preterm labor. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2019 Aug 6. doi: 10.1002/uog.20422.
Goodfellow, L, Care, A, Sharp, A, et al. Effect of QUiPP prediction algorithm on treatment decisions in women with a previous preterm birth: a prospective cohort study. BJOG2019; 126) :1569–75. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.15886.
Petch, S, DeMaio, A, Daly, S. Prediction of recurrent preterm delivery in asymptomatic women: an anxiety reducing measure?Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol X2019; 4: 100064. doi: 10.1016/j.eurox.2019.100064.
Dawes, LK, Prentice, LR, Huang, Y, Groom, KM. The Biomarkers for Preterm Birth Study: a prospective observational study comparing the impact of vaginal biomarkers on clinical practice when used in women with symptoms of preterm labor. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand2020; 99: 249–58. doi: 10.1111/aogs.13729.
Akercan, F, Kazandi, M, Sendag, F, et al.Value of cervical phosphorylated insulin like growth factor binding protein-1 in the prediction of preterm labor. J Reprod Med2004; 49: 368–72.
Honest, H, Hyde, CJ, Khan, KS. Prediction of spontaneous preterm birth: no good test for predicting a spontaneous preterm birth. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol2012; 24: 422–33.
Cooper, S, Lange, I, Wood, S, et al.Diagnostic accuracy of rapid phIGFBP-I assay for predicting preterm labor in symptomatic patients. J Perinatol2011; 32: 460–5.
Petrunin, D, Griaznova, IM, Petrunina, I, Tatarinov, IuS. [Immunochemical identification of organ specific human placental alpha-1-globulin and its concentration in amniotic fluid]. Akush Ginekol (Mosk)1977; 1: 62–4.
Nikolova, T, Bayev, O, Nikolova, N, Di Renzo, G. Evaluation of a novel placental alpha microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) test to predict spontaneous preterm delivery. J Perinat Med2014; 42: 473–7.
Macnaughton, M, Chalmers, I, Dubowitz, V, et al.Final report of the Medical Research Council/Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists multicentre randomised trial of cervical cerclage. Br J Obstet Gynaecol1993; 100: 516–23.
To, MS, Alfirevic, Z, Heath, VC, et al.Cervical cerclage for prevention of preterm delivery in women with short cervix: randomised controlled trial. Lancet2004; 363: 1849–53.
Berghella, V, Odibo, AO, To, MS, Rust, OA, Althusius, SM. Cerclage for short cervix on ultrasonography: meta-analysis of trials using individual patient-level data. Obstet Gynecol2005; 106: 181–9.
Owen, J, Hankins, G, Iams, JD, et al.Multicenter randomized trial of cerclage for preterm birth prevention in high-risk women with shortened midtrimester cervical length. Am J Obstet Gynecol2009; 201: 375.e1–8.
Althuisius, SM, Dekker, GA, Hummel, P, van Geijn, HP. Cervical incompetence prevention randomized cerclage trial: emergency cerclage with bed rest versus bed rest alone. Am J Obstet Gynecol2003; 189: 907–10.
Chandiramani, M, Shennan, AH. Premature cervical change and the use of cervical cerclage. Fetal Maternal Med Rev2007; 18: 25–52.
Odibo, AO, Berghella, V, To, MS, et al.Shirodkar versus McDonald cerclage for the prevention of preterm birth in women with short cervical length. Am J Perinatol2007; 24: 55–60.
Shennan, A, Chandiramani, M, Bennett, P, et al. MAVRIC: a multicentre randomised controlled trial of transabdominal versus transvaginal cervical cerclage. Am J Obstet Gynecol2019 Oct 1. pii: S0002-9378(19)31206-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.09.040.
Dodd, JM, Jones, L, Flenady, V, Cincotta, R, Crowther, CA. Prenatal administration of progesterone for preventing preterm birth in women considered to be at risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2013; (7): CD004947.
Meis, PJ, Klebanoff, M, Thom, E, et al.Prevention of recurrent preterm delivery by 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. N Engl J Med2003; 348: 2379–85.
Keirse, MJ. Progesterone and preterm: seventy years of “deja vu” or “still to be seen”?Birth2004; 31: 230–5.
Iams, JD, Newman, RB, Thom, EA, et al.Frequency of uterine contractions and the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. N Eng J Med2002; 346: 250–5.
Romero, R, Nikolaides, K, Conde-Agudelo, A, et al.Vaginal progesterone in women with an asymptomatic sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester decreases preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity: a systematic review and metaanalysis of individual patient data. Am J Obstet Gynecol2012; 206: 124.e1–19.
Grobman, WA, Thom, EA, Spong, CY, et al.17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prevent prematurity in nulliparas with cervical length less than 30 mm. Am J Obstet Gynecol2012; 207: 390.e1–8.
Durnwald, CP, Lynch, CD, Walker, H, Iams, JD. The effect of treatment with 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate on changes in cervical length over time. Am J Obstet Gynecol2009; 201: 410.e1–5.
Norman, JE, Marlow, N, Messow, CM, et al.Vaginal progesterone prophylaxis for preterm birth (the OPPTIMUM study): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet2016; 387: 2106–16.
Romero, R, Nicolaides, KH, Conde-Agudelo, A, et al.Vaginal progesterone decreases preterm birth ≤ 34 weeks of gestation in women with a singleton pregnancy and a short cervix: an updated meta-analysis including data from the OPPTIMUM study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2016; 48: 308–17.
Briery, CM, Klauser, CK, Martin, RW, Magann, EF, Chauhan, SP, Morrison, JCThe use of 17-hydroxy progesterone in women with arrested preterm labor: a randomized clinical trial. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med2014; 27: 1892–6.]
Martinez de Tejada, B, Karolinski, A, Ocampo, MC, et al.Prevention of preterm delivery with vaginal progesterone in women with preterm labour (4P): randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. BJOG2015; 122: 80–91
Choudhary, M, Suneja, A, Vaid, NB, Guleria, K, Faridi, MM. Maintenance tocolysis with oral micronized progesterone for prevention of preterm birth after arrested preterm labor. Int J Gynaecol Obstet2014; 126: 60–3.
Rode, L, Klein, K, Nicolaides, K, Krampl-Bettelheim, E, Tabor, A. Prevention of preterm delivery in twin gestations (PREDICT): a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of vaginal micronized progesterone. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2011; 38: 272–80.
Norman, JE, Mackenzie, F, Owen, P, et al.Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancy (STOPPIT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and meta-analysis. Lancet2009; 373: 2034–40.
Wood, S, Ross, S, Tang, S, et al.Vaginal progesterone to prevent preterm birth in multiple pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. J Perinat Med2012; 40: 593–9.
Serra, V, Perales, A, Meseguer, J, et al.Increased doses of vaginal progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancies: a randomised controlled double-blind multicentre trial. BJOG2013; 120: 50–7.
Conde-Agudelo, A, Romero, R, Hassan, SS, Yeo, LTransvaginal sonographic cervical length for the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth in twin pregnancies: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol2010; 203: 128.e1–12.
Goya, M, Pratcorona, L, Merced, C, et al.Cervical pessary in pregnant women with a short cervix (PECEP): an open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet2012; 379: 1800–6.
Hui, SY, Chor, CM, Lau, TK, Lao, TT, Leung, TY. Cerclage pessary for preventing preterm birth in women with a singleton pregnancy and a short cervix at 20 to 24 weeks: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Perinatol2013; 30: 283–8.
Liem, S, Schuit, E, Hegeman, M, et al.Cervical pessaries for prevention of preterm birth in women with a multiple pregnancy (ProTWIN): a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet2013; 382: 1341–9.
Conde-Agudelo A, Romero R, Nicolaides KH. Cervical pessary to prevent preterm birth in asymptomatic high-risk women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol2020; 223(1): 42–65.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.12.266.
Alfirevic, Z, Owen, J, Carreras Moratonas, E, et al.Vaginal progesterone, cerclage or cervical pessary for preventing preterm birth in asymptomatic singleton pregnant women with a history of preterm birth and a sonographic short cervix. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol2013; 41: 146–51.
Sandall, J, Soltani, H, Gates, S, Shennan, A, Devane, D. Midwife-led continuity models versus other models of care for childbearing women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2016; (4): CD004667. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004667.pub5.
Anotayanonth, S, Subhedar, NV, Neilson, JP, Harigopal, S. Betamimetics for inhibiting preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2004;(4): CD004352.
Mackeen, AD, Seibel-Seamon, J, Grimes-Dennis, J, Baxter, JK, Berghella, V. Tocolytics for preterm premature rupture of membranes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2011; (10): CD007062.
Naik Gaunekar, N, Raman, P, Bain, E, Crowther, CA. Maintenance therapy with calcium channel blockers for preventing preterm birth after threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2013; (10): CD004071.
Dodd, JM, Crowther, CA, Middleton, P. Oral betamimetics for maintenance therapy after threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2012; (12): CD003927.
Liggins, GPremature delivery of foetal lambs infused with glucocorticoids. J Endocrinol1969; 45: 515–23.
Crowley, P, Chalmers, I, Keirse, MJ. The effects of corticosteroid administration before preterm delivery: an overview of the evidence from controlled trials. Br J Obstet Gynaecol1990; 97: 11–25.
Roberts, D, Dalziel, S. Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2006; (3): CD004454.
Crowther, CA, McKinlay, CJ, Middleton, P, Harding, JE. Repeat doses of prenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for improving neonatal health outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015; (7): CD003935.
Dalziel, SR, Walker, NK, Parag, V, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors after antenatal exposure to betamethasone: a 30-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet2005; 365: 1856–62.
Althabe, F, Belizán, JM, McClure, EM, et al.A population-based, multifaceted strategy to implement antenatal corticosteroid treatment versus standard care for the reduction of neonatal mortality due to preterm birth in low-income and middle-income countries: the ACT cluster-randomised trial. Lancet2015; 385: 629–39.
Back, SA, Han, BH, Luo, NL, et al.Selective vulnerability of late oligodendrocyte progenitors to hypoxia–ischemia. The Journal of neuroscience2002; 22: 455–63.
Haynes, RL, Folkerth, RD, Keefe, RJ, et al.Nitrosative and oxidative injury to premyelinating oligodendrocytes in periventricular leukomalacia. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol2003; 62: 441–50.
Burd, I, Breen, K, Friedman, A, Chai, J, Elovitz, MA. Magnesium sulfate reduces inflammation-associated brain injury in fetal mice. Am J Obstet Gynecol2010; 202: 292.e1–9.
Kuban, KC, Leviton, A, Pagano, M, et al.Maternal toxemia is associated with reduced incidence of germinal matrix hemorrhage in premature babies. J Child Neurol1992; 7: 70–6.
Nelson, KB, Grether, JK. Can magnesium sulfate reduce the risk of cerebral palsy in very low birthweight infants?Pediatrics1995; 95: 263–9.
Crowther, CA, Hiller, JE, Doyle, LW, Hasslam, RR. Effect of magnesium sulfate given for neuroprotection before preterm birth: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA2003; 290: 2669–76.
Chang, EPreterm birth and the role of neuroprotection. BMJ2015; 350: g6661.
Marret, S, Marpeau, L, Zuban-Simunek, V, et al.Magnesium sulphate given before very-preterm birth to protect infant brain: the randomised controlled PREMAG trial. BJOG2007; 114: 310–18.
Rouse, DJ, Hirtz, DG, Thom, E, et al.A randomized, controlled trial of magnesium sulfate for the prevention of cerebral palsy. N Eng J Med2008; 359: 895–905.
Doyle, LW, Crowther, CA, Middleton, P, Marret, S, Rouse, D. Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2009; (1): CD004661.
Magee, L, Sawchuck, D, Synnes, A, Von Dadelszen, P. SOGC clinical practice guideline. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection. J Obstet Gynaecol Can2011; 33: 516–29.
O’Shea, MT, Doyle, LW. Perinatal glucocorticoid therapy and neurodevelopmental outcome: an epidemiologic perspective. Semin Neonatol2001; 6: 293–307
Fleiss, B, Parkington, HC, Coleman, HA, et al.Effect of maternal administration of allopregnanolone before birth asphyxia on neonatal hippocampal function in the spiny mouse. Brain Res2012; 1433: 9–19.