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Chapter 5 - Bleeding and Pain in Early Pregnancy (Content last reviewed: 15th March 2019)

from Section 2 - Early Prenatal Problems

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 November 2017

David James
University of Nottingham
Philip Steer
Imperial College London
Carl Weiner
University of Kansas
Bernard Gonik
Wayne State University, Detroit
Stephen Robson
University of Newcastle
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Complications arise more frequently during the first trimester than at any other stage of pregnancy. Most present with bleeding, pain, or both. Vaginal bleeding occurs in about 20% of clinically diagnosed pregnancies. It causes considerable anxiety for the woman and her partner. In the vast majority of cases, no intervention alters the outcome. The main aim of clinical management is a prompt and accurate diagnosis, with reassurance if the pregnancy is appropriately developed and viable, or appropriate intervention if not. This chapter focuses on the principles of diagnosis and management and three principal diagnoses: miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and gestational trophoblastic disease. The other differential diagnoses are shown in Table 5.1.

High-Risk Pregnancy
Management Options
, pp. 85 - 112
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
First published in: 2017

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