Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-5rkl9 Total loading time: 2.2 Render date: 2022-11-30T02:00:37.299Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Section 3 - Contraception and Medical Conditions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 March 2022

Johannes Bitzer
Affiliation:
University Women’s Hospital, Basel
Tahir A. Mahmood
Affiliation:
Victoria Hospital, Kirkcaldy
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Further Reading

Gompel, A, Ramirez, I, Bitzer, J. European Society of Contraception Expert Group on hormonal contraception in cancer survivors: an expert review Part I. Breast and gynaecological cancers. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2019 Jun; 24(3):167–74.Google Scholar
WHO. Medical Eligibility Criteria For Contraceptive Use (Internet, cited 2016 Sep 19). Available from: www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/MEC-5/en/w=1&sort=0&submit=%C2%A0Execute%C2%A0Google Scholar
Medical Eligibility Criteria UK Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Health. London https://www.fsrh.org/ukmec/Google Scholar
Schwarz, EB, Hess, R, Trussell, J. Contraception for cancer survivors. J Gen Intern Med. 2009 Nov; 24 Suppl 2:S401-6. doi: 10.1007/s11606-009-1023-8. Review.Google Scholar
Society of Family Planning. Cancer and contraception. Clinical Guidelines. Society of Family Planning/Contraception. 2012; 86(3):191–8.Google Scholar
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. The management of gestational trophoblastic disease (Green–top Guideline). 2010 Feb; 38.Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016. Recommendations and Reports 65(3), July 29, 2016.Google Scholar

Further Reading

Minami, Y, Ohuchi, N, et al. Risk factors for benign breast disease according to histopathological type: comparisons with risk factors for breast cancer. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1998 Feb; 89(2): 116–23.Google ScholarPubMed
Brinton, LA, Vessey, MP, Flavel, R, Yeates, D. Risk factors for benign breast. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1981 Mar; 113 (3): 203–14.Google ScholarPubMed
Weisberg, E., Fraser, IS. Contraception and endometriosis: challenges, efficacy, and therapeutic importance. Open Access J Contracept. 2015; 6: 105–15.Google ScholarPubMed
Laughlin-Tommaso, SK, Hesley, GK, Hopkins, MR, et al. Clinical limitations of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification of uterine fibroids. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2017; 139: 143.Google ScholarPubMed
Laughlin, SK, Schroeder, JC, Baird, DD. New directions in the epidemiology of uterine fibroids. Semin Reprod Med. 2010; 28: 204.Google ScholarPubMed
Borah, BJ, Nicholson, WK, Bradley, L, Stewart, EA. The impact of uterine leiomyomas: a national survey of affected women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 209: 319.e1.Google ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria (5th Ed.) 2015. Pdf www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/MEC-5/en/.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (UKMEC). 2016. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/external/ukmec-2016-digital-version/ (Accessed August 10, 2018).Google Scholar
Curtis, KM, Jatlaoui, TC, Tepper, NK, et al. U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65(No. RR-4):1–66. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6504a1.Google Scholar
US Medical Eligibility Criteria (US MEC) for Contraceptive Use, 2016. cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/mmwr/mec/summary.html.Google Scholar
World Health Organization/RHR, CCP: Family Planning. A Global Handbook for Providers. 2018 Ed. 2018. WHO. www.fphandbook.org.Google Scholar

Further Reading

GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 2015; 385:117.Google Scholar
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice Bulletin. Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists. No. 73, June 2006.Google Scholar
World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria (5th Ed.) 2015. Pdf www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/MEC-5/en/Google Scholar
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. Recommendations and Reports. 2016. 65 (3).Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare, (RCOG). UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. 2016. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/uk-medical-eligibility-criteria-for-contraceptive-use-ukmec/Google Scholar
World Health Organization. Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44028/1/9780978856373_eng.pdf. Accessed 10 August 2018.Google Scholar
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Summary Chart of US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. Updated in 2020. www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/pdf/summary-chart-us-medical-eligibility-criteria_508tagged.pdfGoogle Scholar
Cagnacci, A: Hormonal contraception: venous and arterial disease. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2017; 22:191–9.Google ScholarPubMed

Further Reading

GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 2015; 385: 117.Google Scholar
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, Recommendations and Reports. 2016; 65 (3).Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare (RCOG). UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. 2016. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/uk-medical-eligibility-criteria-for-contraceptive-use-ukmec/Google Scholar
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Summary Chart of US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. Updated 2020. www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/pdf/summary-chart-us-medical-eligibility-criteria_508tagged.pdfGoogle Scholar
Nwaru, BI, Sheikh, A. Hormonal contraceptives and asthma in women of reproductive age: analysis of data from serial national Scottish Health Surveys. J R Soc Med. 2015;108:358–71. doi: 10.1177/01410768155 88320.Google ScholarPubMed
McCleary, N, Nwaru, BI, Nurmatov, UB, Critchley, H, Sheikh, A. Endogenous and exogenous sex steroid hormones in asthma and allergy in females: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141(4):1510–13.e8. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2017.11.034Google ScholarPubMed
Han, X, Yang, H, Zhang, Y and Ma, X. Three cases of lung cancer in pregnancy and literature review. Annals of Palliative Medicine (Online). 2020;9(4):1928–36.Google ScholarPubMed

Further Reading

World Health Organization. WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (Internet). 5th Ed. Geneva: WHO; 2015 (cited September 23, 2020). Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/181468/9789241549158_eng.pdf?sequence=9.Google Scholar
Wiles, K, Nelson-Piercy, C. Oxford Textbook of Clinical Nephrology. 4th Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2015; 2530–5.Google Scholar
Lidegaard, O, Lokkegaard, E, Svendsen, A, Agger, C. Hormonal contraception and risk of venous thromboembolism: national follow-up study. BMJ. 2009;339(aug13 2):b2890–b2890.Google ScholarPubMed
Pechère-Bertschi, A, Maillard, M, Stalder, H, Bischof, P, Fathi, M, Brunner, H et al. Renal hemodynamic and tubular responses to salt in women using oral contraceptives. Kidney International. 2003;64(4):1374–80.Google ScholarPubMed
Attini, R, Cabiddu, G, Montersino, B, Gammaro, L, Gernone, G, Moroni, G et al. Contraception in chronic kidney disease: a best practice position statement by the Kidney and Pregnancy Group of the Italian Society of Nephrology. Journal of Nephrology. 2020.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Health. Clinical Guidance: Drug Interactions with Hormonal Contraception. 2019. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/fsrh-guidelines-and-statements/drug-interactions/.Google Scholar

Further Reading

Catalano, PM, Shankar, K. Obesity and pregnancy: mechanisms of short term and long term adverse consequences for mother and child. BMJ 2017; 356:j1.Google ScholarPubMed
Ramsay, PS and Schenken, RS. Obesity in pregnancy: complications and maternal management. Uptodate 2020. www.uptodate.com/contents/obesity-in-pregnancy-complications-and-maternal-management.Google Scholar
Perreault, L, and Lafererre, B. Overweight and obesity in adult: health consequences. Uptodate 2020. www.uptodate.com/contents/overweight-and-obesity-in-adults-health-consequences.Google Scholar
Edelman, A and Kaneshiro, B. Contraception: counseling for females with obesity. Uptodate 2020. www.uptodate.com/contents/contraception-counseling-for-females-with-obesity.Google Scholar
Brown, HL andSmall, MJ. Overview of maternal mortality. Uptodate 2020. www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-maternal-mortality.Google Scholar
Allen, RH. Combined estrogen-progestin contraception: side effects and health concerns. Uptodate 2020. www.uptodate.com/contents/combined-estrogen-progestin-oral-contraceptives-patient-selection-counseling-and-use.Google Scholar
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice Bulletin. Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician–Gynecologists. Number 206, January 2019.Google Scholar
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice Bulletin. Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists. Number 156, December 2015.Google Scholar
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, Recommendations and Reports. 2016;65(30).Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Health. UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use/UKMEC 2016.Google Scholar
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Summary Chart of US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. Updated 2020. www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/pdf/summary-chart-us-medical-eligibility-criteria_508tagged.pdf.Google Scholar

Further Reading

Magalhaes, J, Amaral, E, Giraldo, PC, et al. HIV infection in women: impact on contraception. Contraception. 2002; 66:8791.Google ScholarPubMed
International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). International Medical Advisory Panel (IMAP) statement on dual protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. IPPF Medical Bulletin. 2000 Aug;34(4).Google Scholar
Stephenson, JM. Systematic review of hormonal contraception and risk of HIV transmission: when to resist meta-analysis. AIDS. 1998;12:545–53.Google ScholarPubMed

Further Reading

World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria (5th Ed.) 2015. Pdf www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/MEC-5/en/.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (UKMEC). 2016. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/external/ukmec-2016-digital-version/.Google Scholar
U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. Recommendations and Reports. 2016;65(3).Google Scholar
Curtis, KM, Jatlaoui, TC, Tepper, NK, et al. U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65(No. RR-4):166. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6504a1.Google Scholar
MacGregor, EA. Migraine in pregnancy and lactation: a clinical review. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2007;33(2):8393.Google ScholarPubMed
Sacco, S et al: Effect of Exogenous Estrogens and Progestogens on the Course of Migraine during Reproductive Age: a Consensus Statement by the European Headache Federation (EHF) and the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health (ESCRH). www.aan.com/go/practice/guidelines.Google Scholar
Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Epilepsy in Pregnancy. Green-top Guideline No. 68 June 2016.Google Scholar
Tepper, N, Whiteman, M, Zapata, L, Marchbanks, P, Curtis, K. Safety of hormonal contraceptives among women with migraine: a systematic review. Contraception. 2016;94:630–40.Google ScholarPubMed
Dutton, C., Roe, A.H., Bartz, D. (2019) Contraception in neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In O’Neal, M. (Eds.) Neurology and Psychiatry of Women. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04245-5_4.Google Scholar
Curtis, K, Tepper, N, Jatlaoui, T, Berry-Bibee, E, Horton, L, Zapata, L, et al. U.S. medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016;65: 1103.Google Scholar
Stidham Hall, K. et al: Contraception and mental health: a commentary on the evidence and principles for practice. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jun;212(6): 740–6.Google Scholar
Harden, C, Pennell, P. Neuroendocrine considerations in the treatment of men and women with epilepsy. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12:7283.Google ScholarPubMed
Pennell, P, Davis, A. Selecting contraception for women treated with antiepileptic drugs. In Klein, A, Angela O’Neal, M, Scifres, C, Waters, JFR, Waters, JH, (Eds.) Neurological Illness In Pregnancy: Principles and Practice. 1st Ed. Wiley; 2016. p. 110–21.Google Scholar

Further Reading

Heise, ER. Diseases associated with immunosuppression. Environ Health Perspect. 1982; 43:919. doi: 10.1289/ehp.82439.Google ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria (5th Ed.) 2015. Pdf www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/MEC-5/en/.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (UKMEC). 2016. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/external/ukmec-2016-digital-version/.Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. Recommendations and Reports. 2016. 65 (3).Google Scholar
Curtis, KM, Jatlaoui, TC, Tepper, NK, et al. U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016; 65(No. RR-4):1–66. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6504a1.Google Scholar
Culwell, KR, Curtis, KM. Contraception for women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2013; 39:911. dx.doi.org/10.1136/jfprhc-2012–100437.Google ScholarPubMed
Williams, WV. Hormonal contraception and the development of autoimmunity: A review of the literature. Linacre Q. 2017; 84(3):275–95. doi:10.1080/00243639.2017.1360065.Google ScholarPubMed
Aggarwal, V, Williams, MD, Beath, SV. Gastrointestinal problems in the immunosuppressed patient. Arch Dis Child. 1998; 78:58.Google ScholarPubMed
Migali, G, Tintillier, M. Interaction between estradiol and tacrolimus in kidney-transplanted menopausal women. NDT Plus. 2008; 1(4):277–8. doi:10.1093/ndtplus/sfn035.Google ScholarPubMed
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). Clinical Guidance: Drug Interactions with Hormonal Contraception. London: FRSH, 2017.Google Scholar

Further Reading

NHS Blood and Transplant, Organ Donation and Transplantation. Activity Report. Statistics and Clinical Studies. 2019–20.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare. UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (UKMEC) 2016. Amended September 2019.Google Scholar
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. US Medical Eligibility Criteria (US MEC) for Contraceptive Use, 2016.Google Scholar
Szymusik, I, Szpotanska-Sikorska, M, Mazanowska, N, Ciszek, M, Wielgos, M; Pietrzak, B. Contraception in women after organ transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings 2014; 46:3268–72.Google ScholarPubMed
Shah, S, Venkatesan, WL, Gupta, A, Sanghavi, MK, Welge, J, Johansen, R et al. Pregnancy outcomes in women with kidney transplant: Meta-analysis and systematic review. BMC Nephrology 2019; 20(24). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-019-1213-5.Google Scholar
Deshpande, NA; Coscia, LA, Gomez-Lobo, V, Moritz, MJ, Armenti, VT. Pregnancy after solid organ transplantation: a guide for obstetric management. Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology 2013; 6(3–4):116–25.Google ScholarPubMed

Further Reading

Buchwald, H. Consensus conference statement. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2005;1:371–81.Google ScholarPubMed
Santry, HP. Trends in bariatric surgical procedures. JAMA 2005;294:1909.Google ScholarPubMed
Sundbom, M. Laparoscopic revolution in bariatric surgery. World J Gastroenterol 2014;20:15135.Google ScholarPubMed
Ochner, CN, Gibson, C, Shanik, M, Goel, V, Geliebter, A. Changes in neurohormonal gut peptides following bariatric surgery. Int J Obes 2011;35:153–66.Google ScholarPubMed
Maggard, MA, Yermilov, I, Li, Z, Maglione, M, Newberry, S, Suttorp, M, et al. Pregnancy and fertility following bariatric surgery. JAMA 2008;300:2286–96.Google ScholarPubMed
Merhi, ZO. Impact of bariatric surgery on female reproduction. Fertil Steril 2009;92:1501–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Johansson, K, Cnattingius, S, Näslund, I, Roos, N, Lagerros, YT, Granath, F, et al. Outcomes of pregnancy after bariatric surgery. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2015;70:375–7.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare. FSRH Guideline. Overweight, obesity and contraception. BMJ Sex Reprod Health 2019;45:169.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare. FSRH Clinical Guidance. Intrauterine Contraception. 2015.Google Scholar
Beatty, MN, Blumenthal, PD. The levonorgestrel-releasing intra-uterine system: safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2009;5:561–74.Google Scholar
Saito-Tom, L, Harris, S, Soon, R, Salcedo, J, Kaneshiro, B. Intrauterine device use in overweight and obese women. Contraception 2013;88:457–8.Google Scholar
Hillman, JB, Miller, RJ, Inge, TH. Menstrual concerns and intrauterine contraception among adolescent bariatric surgery patients. J Women’s Health 2011;20:533–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Birgisson, NE, Zhao, Q, Secura, GM, Madden, T, Peipert, JF. Preventing unintended pregnancy: the contraceptive CHOICE project in review. J Women’s Health 2015;24(5):349–53.Google Scholar
Segall-Gutierrez, P, Taylor, D, Liu, X, Stanzcyk, F, Azen, S, Mishell, DR. Follicular development and ovulation in extremely obese women receiving depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate subcutane-ously. Contraception 2010;81:487–95.Google Scholar
Murthy, A, Lam, C. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) use after bariatric surgery. Open Access J Contracept 2016;7:143–50.Google Scholar
Schlatter, J. Oral contraceptives after bariatric surgery. Obes Facts 2017;10:118–26.Google ScholarPubMed

Further Reading

World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria (5th Ed.) 2015. Pdf www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/MEC-5/en/.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (UKMEC). 2016. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/external/ukmec-2016-digital-version/.Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016 Recommendations and Reports. 2016; 65(3).Google Scholar
Curtis, KM, Jatlaoui, TC, Tepper, NK, et al. U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016; 65(No. RR-4):166. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6504a1.Google Scholar
Culwell, KR, Curtis, KM. Contraception for women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care 2013; 39:911. dx.doi.org/10.1136/jfprhc-2012–100437.Google ScholarPubMed
Williams, WV. Hormonal contraception and the development of autoimmunity: A review of the literature. Linacre Q. 2017; 84(3):275–95. doi:10.1080/00243639.2017.1360065.Google ScholarPubMed
Aggarwal, V, Williams, MD, Beath, SV. Gastrointestinal problems in the immunosuppressed patient. Arch Dis Child 1998; 78:58.Google ScholarPubMed

Further Reading

World Health Organization: International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. who.int/standards/classifications/.Google Scholar
World Health Organization: Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 5th Ed. 2015. www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/MEC-5/en/.Google Scholar
World Health Organization. Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers. USAID, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg, WHO. 2018.Google Scholar
International Consortium for Emergency Contraception (ICEC). Emergency Contraceptive Pills (Medical and Service Delivery Guidelines) 3rd Ed. ICEC and FIGO. 2012.Google Scholar
Dickson, J, Thwaites, A, Bacon, L. Contraception for adolescents with disabilities: taking control of periods, cycles and conditions. BMJ Sex Reprod Health: first published as 10.1136/jfprhc-2017–101746 on November 8, 2017. Downloaded from http://jfprhc.bmj.com/ on June 23, 2020 by guest. Protected by copyright.Google Scholar
Kaplan, C. Special issues in contraception: caring for women with disabilities; J Midwifery Women’s Health. 2006; 51(6):450–6. © 2006 Elsevier Science, Inc.Google ScholarPubMed
Haynes, RM, Boulet, SL, Fox, MH, Carroll, DD, Courtney, -Long, E, Warner, L. Contraceptive use at last intercourse among reproductive-aged women with disabilities: An analysis of population-based data from seven states. [Published online ahead of print December 15, 2017]. Contraception. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2017.12.008.Google Scholar

Further Reading

NICE. Guideline NG3: Diabetes in Pregnancy, Management from Preconception to the Postnatal Period. 2015, updated 2020. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng3.Google Scholar
American Diabetes Association. Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2020. Diabetes Care Jan 2020, 43 (Supplement 1) S183-S192; DOI: 10.2337/dc20-S014.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use /UKMEC 2016. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/external/ukmec-2016-digital-version/.Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. Recommendations and Reports. 2016, 65 (3).Google Scholar
World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraception Use, 5th Ed. August 2015.Google Scholar
Public Health England. Health Matters: Reproductive Health and Pregnancy Planning. June 2018.Google Scholar

Further Reading

Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive use (2019). www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/external/ukmec-2016-digital-version/.Google Scholar
Girling, J. Thyroid disease in pregnancy. The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist 2008; 10:237–43.Google Scholar
American Thyroid Association. Article I: Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease during Pregnancy and the Postpartum. Thyroid 2017; 27(3). https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2016.0457.Google Scholar
American Academy of Family Physicians. Contraception Choices for Women with Underlying Medical Condition: AAFP Guidance. www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0915/p621.html.Google Scholar

Further Reading

Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. 2016. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/external/ukmec-2016-digital-version/.Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. NICE Guidance: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. https://cks.nice.org.uk/topics/polycystic-ovary-syndrome/.Google Scholar
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Practice Bulletin 194. Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 131(6).Google Scholar

Further Reading

Milburn, J, Black, M, Ahmed, I, McLeman, L, Straiton, J, Danielian, P. Diagnosis and management of liver masses in pregnancy. The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist. 2016 Jan;18(1):4351.Google Scholar
Sahu, SK, Chawla, YK, Dhiman, RK, Singh, V, Duseja, A, Taneja, S, et al. Rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma: a review of literature. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2019 Mar-Apr;9(2):245–56.Google ScholarPubMed
Shao, Z, Al Tibi, M, Wakim-Fleming, J. Update on viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Cleve Clin J Med. 2017 Mar;84(3):202–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Kapp, N, Tilley, IB, Curtis, KM. The effects of hormonal contraceptive use among women with viral hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver: a systematic review. Contraception. 2009 Oct;80(4):381–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Hagström, H, Höijer, J, Marschall, H, Williamson, C, Heneghan, MA, Westbrook, RH, et al. Outcomes of pregnancy in mothers with cirrhosis: a national population-based cohort study of 1.3 million pregnancies. Hepatol Commun. 2008 Sep 25;2(11):1299–305.Google Scholar

Further Reading

Ban, L, Tata, LJ, Humes, DJ, Fiaschi, L, Card, T. Decreased fertility rates in 9639 women diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease: a United Kingdom population‐based cohort study. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2015;42(7):855–66.Google ScholarPubMed
Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare Clinical Effectiveness Unit. Sexual and Reproductive Health for Individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. 2009.Google Scholar
Gawron, LM, Hammond, C, Keefer, L. Documentation of reproductive health counselling and contraception in women with inflammatory bowel diseases.Patient Educ Couns. 2014;94:134–7.Google ScholarPubMed
Cotton, CC, Baird, D, Sandler, RS, Long, MD. Hormonal contraception use is common among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and an elevated risk of deep vein thrombosis. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 2016;22(7):1631–8.Google Scholar

Further Reading

Taher, AT, Weatherall, DJ, Cappellini, MD. Thalassaemia. Lancet. 2018;391(10116):155–67.Google ScholarPubMed
Neinstein, Ls Katz, B. Patients with hematologic disorders need careful birth control counseling. Contracept Technol Update. 1985;6(3):43–6.Google Scholar
Psihogios, V, Rodda, C, Reid, E, Clark, M, Clarke, C, Bowden, D. Reproductive health in individuals with homozygous beta-thalassemia: knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Fertil Steril. 2002;77(1):119–27.Google ScholarPubMed
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Management of Beta Thalassaemia in Pregnancy. Green-top Guideline No.66 March 2014.Google Scholar
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Management of Sickle Cell Disease in Pregnancy. Green-top Guideline No.61 June 2011.Google Scholar
Kuo, K, Caughey, AB. Contemporary outcomes of sickle cell disease in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;215(4):505.e15.Google ScholarPubMed

Further Reading

UCSF Transgender Care Navigation Program. “Terminology and definitions.” UCSF Transgender Care Navigation Program. June 17, 2016. Accessed on September 11, 2019. Available at: https://transcare.ucsf.edu/guidelines/terminology.Google Scholar
Francis, A, Jasani, S, Bachmann, G. Contraceptive challenges and the transgender individual. Womens Midlife Health. 2018;4:12.Google ScholarPubMed
Amato, P. “Fertility options for transgender persons.” UCSF Transgender Care Navigation Program. June 17, 2016. Accessed on September 11, 2019. Available at: https://transcare.ucsf.edu/guidelines/fertility.Google Scholar
Boudreau, D, Mukerjee, R. Contraception care for transmasculine individuals on testosterone therapy. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2019;64(4):395402.Google ScholarPubMed
Shah, M. “Birth control across the gender spectrum.” Bedsider. 2017. Accessed on September 11, 2019. Available at: www.bedsider.org/features/1070-birth-control-across-the-gender-spectrum.Google Scholar
Jones, K, Wood, M, Stephens, L. Contraception choices for transgender males. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2017;43(3):239–40.Google ScholarPubMed
Higgins, A, Carpenter, E. et al: Sexual minority women and contraceptive use: Complex pathways between sexual orientation and health outcomes. Am J Public Health. 2019;109(12):1680–6.Google ScholarPubMed

Further Reading

World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria (5th Ed.) 2015. Pdf www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/MEC-5/en/.Google Scholar
Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (UKMEC). 2016. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/external/ukmec-2016-digital-version/.Google Scholar
U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016 Recommendations and Reports. 65(3).Google Scholar
Curtis, KM, Jatlaoui, TC, Tepper, NK, et al. U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65(No. RR-4):166. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6504a1.Google Scholar
Bitzer, J. Overview of perimenopausal contraception, Climacteric. (2019) 22:4450.Google ScholarPubMed
Bitzer, J, Abalos, V, Apter, D. Targeting factors for change: contraceptive counselling and care of female adolescents Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. (2016) 21(6):114.Google ScholarPubMed

Further Reading

Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare: Clinical Guidance: Drug Interactions with Hormonal Contraceptives. January 2017 (last reviewed January 2019). Pdf. www.fsrh.org/documents/ceu-clinical-guidance-drug-interactions-with-hormonal/.Google Scholar
World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 5th Ed. www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/MEC-5/en/.Google Scholar
World Health Organization. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use 3rd Ed. WHO 2016.Google Scholar
FSRH Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH). UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (UKMEC). 2016. www.fsrh.org/standards-and-guidance/external/ukmec-2016-digital-version/.Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016 Recommendations and Reports. 2016. 65(3).Google Scholar
Curtis, KM, Jatlaoui, TC, Tepper, NK, et al. U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65(No. RR-4):1–66. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6504a1.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×