Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-s84wp Total loading time: 0.35 Render date: 2022-07-03T18:37:58.731Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

5 - Unconventional RFID systems

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 October 2014

Luca Roselli
Università degli Studi di Perugia, Italy
Get access



Non-conventional RFID systems include those that are not exclusively designed for identification purposes, but which also implement other advanced tasks such as location or sensing.

The most widespread, yet simple, RFID system is the one-bit EAS (electronic article surveillance) system whose only purpose is to detect the presence/absence of a tagged object in the vicinity of a reader. On the other hand, current state-of-the-art N-bit RFID systems serve a broader range of purposes, and the technology is experiencing tremendous advances. RFID readers are more robust, effective, and energy-efficient. Tags can now be made thinner, cheaper, often physically flexible, and more energy-efficient. Sensors, only used in wireless sensor nodes before, are currently making their way towards RFID tags. Some examples of these sensor-enabled tags can readily be found in the literature [1]. Multi-sensor tags including processing capabilities can also be found [2].

In order to be more autonomous and effective, beyond the energy harvesting subsystem, advanced tags also incorporate energy storage and power management units (Figure 5.1). Moreover, some tags integrate more than one method to harvest and store energy, as in Figure 5.1.

As the complexity of passive tags increases (due to sensor, analog-to-digital data conversion, and processing needs) the energy demand also increases, and consequently the system coverage range and the overall energy efficiency become a major concern. Some interesting approaches have been proposed, among them the use of specific signal shapes to improve the RF-DC efficiency of the harvester receivers. One of these examples unconventionally uses multi-sine signals with high PAPR (peak to average power ratio) waveforms (Figure 5.2) that benefit the rectification process on the harvester side [3]. Other kinds of power optimized waveforms, such as chaotic signals, are now being used to improve the RF-DC conversion efficiency [4].

Green RFID Systems , pp. 116 - 151
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2014

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Fernandes, R., Carvalho, N., and Matos, J., “Design of a battery-free wireless sensor node,” in EUROCON – International Conference on Computer as a Tool (EUROCON), IEEE, pp. 1–4, April 2011.
Zhou, Y., Law, C. L., and Xia, J., “Ultra low-power RFID tag with precision localization using IR-UWB,” in Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT), IEEE MTT-S International, pp. 1–4, June 2011.
Alírio, J. S.Boaventura and Nuno Borges Carvalho, “Maximizing DC power in energy harvesting circuits using multi-sine excitation,” IMS2011 – International Microwave Symposium, Baltimore, USA, June 2011.Google Scholar
Collado, A. and Georgiadis, A., “Improving wireless power transmission efficiency using chaotic waveforms,” in Proc. IEEE MTT-S IMS 2012, Montreal, 17–22 June 2012.
Sample, A. P., Yeager, D. J., Powledge, P. S., Mamishev, A. V., and Smith, J. R., “Design of an RFID-based battery-free programmable sensing platform,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 57, (11), 2608–2615, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rida, A., Yang, L., and Tentzeris, M., “RFID-enabled sensor design and applications,” in Integrated Microsystems, Artech House, 2010.
Ruhanen, A., Hanhikorpi, M., Bertuccelli, F., et al., Sensor-enabled RFID Tag Handbook, BRIDGE, ist-2005–033546, January 2008.
Bolic, M., Simplot-Ryl, D., and Stojmenovic, I., RFID Systems: Research Trends and Challenges, in Wiley online library, 2010. .
Scholl, G., Schmidt, F., Ostertag, T., et al., “Wireless passive SAW systems for industrial and domestic applications,” in IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium 1998, pp. 595–601, May 1998.
Butler, J. C., Vigliotti, A. J., Verdi, F. W., and Walsh, S. M., “Wireless, passive, resonant-circuit, inductively coupled, inductive strain sensor,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 102, (12), 61–66, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Viikari, V., Seppa, H., Mattila, T., and Alastalo, A., “Wireless ferroelectric resonating sensor,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 57, (4), 785–791, 2010.
Viikari, V., Seppa, H., and Kim, D.-W., “Intermodulation read-out principle for passive wireless sensors,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 59, (4), 1025–1031, 2011.
Sample, A., Braun, J., Parks, A., and Smith, J., “Photovoltaic enhanced UHF RFID tag antennas for dual purpose energy harvesting,” in IEEE International Conference on RFID, pp. 146–153. April 2011. Also see: Georgiadis, A., Collado, A., Via, S., and Meneses, C., “Flexible hybrid solar/EM energy harvester for autonomous sensors,” in Proc. 2011 IEEE MTT-S Intl. Microwave Symposium (IMS), Baltimore, USA, 5–10 June, 2011.
Boaventura, Alírio Soares and Carvalho, Nuno Borges, “Enhanced front-end to extend reading range of commercial RFID readers using efficient multi-sine signals,” IMS2012 – International Microwave Symposium, Montréal, Canada, June 2012.Google Scholar
Ni, L., Zhang, D., and Souryal, M., “RFID-based localization and tracking technologies,” Wireless Communications, IEEE, 18, (2), 45–51, (April) 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baghaei-Nejad, M. and Zheng, L.-R., “Low cost and precise localization in a remote-powered wireless sensor and identification system,” in 19th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE), p. 1, May 2011.
Bolander, J. G., Lovoi, P. A., and Zawolkow, G. A., “System for powering and reading RFID tags,” Tagent, October 2010, uS7812725B2.
Talon Integrated RTLS Tag, Tagent, tc1022, .
Talon UWB Reader/Controller, Tagent, July 2009, tr10, .
Trotter, M. S., Griffin, J. D., and Durgin, G. D. “Power-optimized waveforms for improving the range and reliability of RFID systems,” in IEEE International Conference on RFID, 2009.
Trotter, M. S. and Durgin, G. D. “Survey of range improvement of commercial RFID tags with power optimized waveforms,” IEEE RFID Conference, pp. 196–202, 2010.
Matsumoto, Hisanori and Takei, Ken, “An experimental study of passive UHF RFID system with longer communication range,” Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, 2007.
Lo, Chun-Chih, Yang, Yu-Lin, Tsai, Chi-Lin, Lee, Chieh-Sen, and Yang, Chin-Lung, “Novel wireless impulsive power transmission to enhance the conversion efficiency for low input power,” Microwave Workshop Series on Innovative Wireless Power Transmission, IEEE, pp. 55–58, 2011.
Yang, Yu-Lin, Yang, Chin-Lung, Tsai, Chi-Lin, and Lee, Chieh-Sen, “Efficiency improvement of the impulsive wireless power transmission”, Microwave Workshop Series on Innovative Wireless Power Transmission, IEEE, pp. 175–178, 2010.
EPC Radio-frequency identity protocols Class-1 Generation-2 UHF RFID, Protocol for communications at 860 MHz – 960 MHz, Version 1.2.0, 2008.
Alien Technology, Hardware Setup Guide ALR-8800, 2006.
Alien Technology, Reader Interface Guide, September 2007.
Cha, K., Ramachandran, A., and Jagannathan, S., “Adaptive and probabilistic power control algorithms for dense RFID reader network,” Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control, ICNSC ‘06, 2006.
Cha, Kainan, Jagannathan, S., and Pommerenke, D., “Adaptive power control protocol with hardware implementation for wireless sensor and RFID reader networks,” IEEE System Journal, 1, (2), 145–149, 2007.
Chang, Tong-Hsiao, Keppeler, Karl Edward, and Rinkes, Charles, US Patent 20090309704 A1, Methods and Systems for RFID Reader Power Management, 2009.
Xu, Xunteng, Guy, Lin, Wang, Jianping, and Xing, Guoliang, “Negotiate power and performance in the reality of RFID systems,” IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom), 2010.
Dobkin, Daniel M., The RF in RFID: Passive UHF in Practice, Elsevier, 2013.
Abreu, R., Almeida, N., Matos, J. N., Carvalho, N. B., and Gomes, J. S., “A homodyne low cost uplink receiver for digital short range communication systems,” IEEE 65th Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC2007, Spring 2007.
Nikookar, H. and Prasad, R., Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications, 1st Edn., Springer Publishing Company, Inc., 2008.
De Angelis, A., Dionigi, M., Giglietti, R., and Carbone, P., “Experimental comparison of low-cost sub-nanosecond pulse generators,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 60, (1), 310–318, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wei, Y. Y., “Ultra wideband signal generation,” Microwave Journal, 48, (9), 172–184, 2005.Google Scholar
Fernandes, R., Carvalho, N., and Matos, J., “Low power UWB pulse generator based on a PIN diode,” submitted to IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, October 2012.
Finkenzeller, Klaus, RFID Handbook, 2nd Edn., Wiley, 2010.

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats