Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-6c8bd87754-h9sqt Total loading time: 1.488 Render date: 2022-01-18T20:49:09.724Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Section 6 - Fertility Preservation Strategies in the Female: ART

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 March 2021

Jacques Donnez
Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels
S. Samuel Kim
University of Kansas School of Medicine
Get access
Fertility Preservation
Principles and Practice
, pp. 211 - 242
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Kato K. Vitrification of embryos and oocytes for fertility preservation in cancer patients. Reprod Med Biol, 2016; 15:227–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alvarez M, Solé M, Devesa M, et al. Live birth using vitrified--warmed oocytes in invasive ovarian cancer: case report and literature review. Reprod Biomed Online, 2014;28(6):663–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodgers RJ, Reid GD, Koch J, et al. The safety and efficacy of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for fertility preservation in women with early breast cancer: a systematic review. Hum Reprod, 2017;32(5):1033–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dolmans M Demylle D, Martínez-Madrid B, Donnez J. Efficacy of in vitro fertilization after chemotherapy. Fertil Steril, 2005;83:897–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oktay K. Further evidence on the safety and success of ovarian stimulation with letrozole and tamoxifen in breast cancer patients undergoing in vitro fertilization to cryopreserve their embryos for fertility preservation. J Clin Oncol, 2005;23:3858–3859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trounson A, Mohr L. Human pregnancy following cryopreservation, thawing and transfer of an eight-cell embryo. Nature, 1983;305(5936):707–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Veiga A, Calderón G, Barri PN, Coroleu B. Pregnancy after the replacement of a frozen– thawed embryo with less than 50% intact blastomeres. Hum Reprod, 1987;2(4):321–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wenherholm UB, Södertrom Anttila V et al. Children born after cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes: a systematic review of outcome data. Hum Reprod, 18(6):815–820.Google Scholar
Jeruss JS, Woodruff TK. Preservation of fertility in patients with cancer. N Engl J Med, 2009;360:902–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loutradis KE, Kolibianakis EM, Venetis CA et al. Cryopreservation of human embryos by vitrification or slow freezing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril, 2008;90 (1):186–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rienzi L, Gracia C, Maggiulli R, et al. Oocyte, embryo and blastocyst cryopreservation in ART: systematic review and meta-analysis comparing slow-freezing versus vitrification to produce evidence for the development of global guidance. Hum Reprod Update, 2017;23(2):139–155.Google Scholar
Check JH, Summers-Chase D, Yuan W, Swenson K, Horwath D. Length of time of embryo storage does not negatively influence pregnancy rates after thawing and transfer. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol, 2010;37(3):185–186.Google Scholar
Yuan Y, Mai Q, Ma J, et al. What was the fate of human embryos following long-term cryopreservation (≥12 years) and frozen embryo transfer?. Hum Reprod, 2019;34(1):52–55. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li J, Yin M, Wang B, et al. The effect of storage time after vitrification on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among 24 698 patients following the first embryo transfer cycles. Hum Reprod, 2020;35(7):1675–1684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Takahashi K, Mukaida T, Goto T, Oka C. Perinatal outcome of blastocyst transfer with vitrification using Cryoloop: a 4 year follow-up study. Fertil Steril, 2005;84:88–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rama Raju GA, Prakash GY, Krishna KM, Madam K. Neonatal outcome after vitrified day 3 embryo transfers: a preliminary study. Fertil Steril, 2009;92:143–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klock SC, Zhang JX, Kazer RR. Fertility preservation for female cancer patients: early clinical experience. Fertil Steril, 2010;94:149–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luna M, Boada M, Aran B et al. Couples’ opinions regarding the fate of surplus frozen embryos. Reprod Biomed Online, 2009;19(Suppl. 2):11–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown JP, Moden E, Obasaju M, Ying YK. Natural cycle in vitro fertilization with embryo cryopreservation prior to chemotherapy for carcinoma of the breast. Hum Reprod, 1996;11:197–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Juretzka MJ, O’Hanlan KA, Katz SL, El-Danasouri I, Westphal LM. Embryo cryopreservation after diagnosis of stage IIB endometrial cancer and subsequent pregnancy in a gestational carrier. Fertil Steril, 2005;83:1041–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oktay K, Sönmezer M. Fertility preservation in gynecological cancers. Curr Opin Oncol, 2007;19:506–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, D, Brown, SE, Nguyen, K et al. Live birth after the transfer of human embryos developed from cryopreserved oocytes harvested before cancer treatment. Fertil Steril, 2007;87(6):1469 e1–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ataman, LM, Rodrigues, JK, Marinho, RM et al. Creating a global community of practice for oncofertility. J Glob Oncol, 2016;2:8396.Google ScholarPubMed
Meirow, D, Epstein, M, Lewis, H, Nugent, D, Gosden, RG. Administration of cyclophosphamide at different stages of follicular maturation in mice: effects on reproductive performance and fetal malformations. Hum Reprod, 2001;16:632637.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernatsky, S, Clarke, AE, Suissa, S. Hematologic malignant neoplasms after drug exposure in rheumatoid arthritis. Arch Intern Med, 2008;168:378381.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schroeder, JO, Euler, HH, Loffler, H. Synchronization of plasmapheresis and pulse cyclophosphamide in severe systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Intern Med, 1987;107:344346.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Langford, CA. Update on Wegener granulomatosis. Cleve Clin J Med, 2005;72:689690, 693697.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rauck, AM, Grovas, AC. Bone marrow transplantation in adolescents. Adolesc Med, 1999;10:445449, xixii.Google ScholarPubMed
Berlanda, N, Vercellini, P, Fedele, L. The outcomes of repeat surgery for recurrent symptomatic endometriosis. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol, 2010;22:320325.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garcia-Velasco, JA, Somigliana, E. Management of endometriomas in women requiring IVF: to touch or not to touch. Hum Reprod, 2009;24:496501.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stoop, D, Cobo, A, Silber, S. Fertility preservation for age-related fertility decline. Lancet, 2014;384:13111319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cobo, A, Garcia-Velasco, JA. Why all women should freeze their eggs. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol, 2016;28:206210.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garcia-Velasco, JA, Domingo, J, Cobo, A et al. Five years’ experience using oocyte vitrification to preserve fertility for medical and nonmedical indications. Fertil Steril, 2013;99:19941999.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Imbert, R, Moffa, F, Tsepelidis, S et al. Safety and usefulness of cryopreservation of ovarian tissue to preserve fertility: a 12-year retrospective analysis. Hum Reprod, 2014;29:19311940.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Donnez, J, Dolmans, MM. Fertility preservation in women. N Engl J Med, 2017;377:16571665.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, SY, Kim, SK, Lee, JR, Woodruff, TK. Toward precision medicine for preserving fertility in cancer patients: existing and emerging fertility preservation options for women. J Gynecol Oncol, 2016;27:e22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diaz-Garcia, C, Domingo, J, Garcia-Velasco, J et al. Oocyte vitrification versus ovarian cortex transplantation in fertility preservation for adult women undergoing gonadotoxic treatments: a prospective cohort study. Fertil Steril, 2018;109(3):478485.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dolmans, MM, Manavella, DD. Recent advances in fertility preservation. J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2019;45:266279.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mahajan, N. Fertility preservation in female cancer patients: an overview. J Hum Reprod Sci, 2015;8:313.Google ScholarPubMed
Chen, C. Pregnancy after human oocyte cryopreservation. Lancet, 1986;1:884886.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fahy, GM, Wowk, B, Wu, J, Paynter, S. Improved vitrification solutions based on the predictability of vitrification solution toxicity. Cryobiology, 2004;48:2235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rall, WF, Fahy, GM. Ice-free cryopreservation of mouse embryos at -196 degrees C by vitrification. Nature, 1985;313:573575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coello, A, Campos, P, Remohi, J, Meseguer, M, Cobo, A. A combination of hydroxypropyl cellulose and trehalose as supplementation for vitrification of human oocytes: a retrospective cohort study. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2016;33:413421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cobo, A, Kuwayama, M, Perez, S, et al. Comparison of concomitant outcome achieved with fresh and cryopreserved donor oocytes vitrified by the Cryotop method. Fertil Steril, 2008;89:16571664.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seki, S, Mazur, P. The dominance of warming rate over cooling rate in the survival of mouse oocytes subjected to a vitrification procedure. Cryobiology, 2009;59:7582.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cobo, A, Serra, V, Garrido, N et al. Obstetric and perinatal outcome of babies born from vitrified oocytes.Fertil Steril, 2014;102:1006–1015.e4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meirow, D, Nugent, D. The effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on female reproduction. Hum Reprod Update, 2001;7:535543.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poniatowski, BC, Grimm, P, Cohen, G. Chemotherapy-induced menopause: a literature review. Cancer Invest, 2001;19:641648.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sonmezer, M, Oktay, K. Fertility preservation in young women undergoing breast cancer therapy. Oncologist, 2006;11:422434.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Qin, N, Chen, Q, Hong, Q et al. Flexibility in starting ovarian stimulation at different phases of the menstrual cycle for treatment of infertile women with the use of in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril, 2016;106:334–341.e1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ubaldi, FM, Capalbo, A, Vaiarelli, A et al. Follicular versus luteal phase ovarian stimulation during the same menstrual cycle (DuoStim) in a reduced ovarian reserve population results in a similar euploid blastocyst formation rate: new insight in ovarian reserve exploitation. Fertil Steril, 2016;105:1488–1495.e1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cakmak, H, Rosen, MP. Random-start ovarian stimulation in patients with cancer. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol, 2015;27:215221.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, JH, Kim, SK, Lee, HJ et al. Efficacy of random-start controlled ovarian stimulation in cancer patients. J Korean Med Sci, 2015;30:290295.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cobo, A, Garcia-Velasco, J, Domingo, J, Pellicer, A, Remohi, J. Elective and onco-fertility preservation: factors related to IVF outcomes. Hum Reprod, 2018;33:22222231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Platet, N, Cathiard, AM, Gleizes, M, Garcia, M. Estrogens and their receptors in breast cancer progression: a dual role in cancer proliferation and invasion. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol, 2004;51:5567.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Butt, AJ, Caldon, CE, McNeil, CM et al. Cell cycle machinery: links with genesis and treatment of breast cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol, 2008;630:189205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oktay, K, Turan, V, Bedoschi, G, Pacheco, FS, Moy, F. Fertility preservation success subsequent to concurrent aromatase inhibitor treatment and ovarian stimulation in women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol, 2015;33:24242429.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Domingo, J, Garcia-Velasco, JA. Oocyte cryopreservation for fertility preservation in women with cancer. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes, 2016;23:465469.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sanchez-Serrano, M, Crespo, J, Mirabet, V et al. Twins born after transplantation of ovarian cortical tissue and oocyte vitrification. Fertil Steril, 2010;93:268.e11–268.e13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, MK, Lee, DR, Han, JE et al. Live birth with vitrified-warmed oocytes of a chronic myeloid leukemia patient nine years after allogenic bone marrow transplantation. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2011;28:11671170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alvarez, M, Sole, M, Devesa, M et al. Live birth using vitrified–warmed oocytes in invasive ovarian cancer: case report and literature review. Reprod Biomed Online, 2014;28:663668.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
da Motta, EL, Bonavita, M, Alegretti, JR, Chehin, M, Serafini, P. Live birth after 6 years of oocyte vitrification in a survivor with breast cancer. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2014;31:13971400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cobo, A, Garcia-Velasco, JA, Coello, A et al. Oocyte vitrification as an efficient option for elective fertility preservation. Fertil Steril, 2016;105:755–64.e8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doyle, JO, Richter, KS, Lim, J et al. Successful elective and medically indicated oocyte vitrification and warming for autologous in vitro fertilization, with predicted birth probabilities for fertility preservation according to number of cryopreserved oocytes and age at retrieval. Fertil Steril, 2016;105:459–466.e2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cardozo, ER, Thomson, AP, Karmon, AE et al. Ovarian stimulation and in-vitro fertilization outcomes of cancer patients undergoing fertility preservation compared to age matched controls: a 17-year experience. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2015;32:587596.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Quinn, MM, Cakmak, H, Letourneau, JM, Cedars, MI, Rosen, MP. Response to ovarian stimulation is not impacted by a breast cancer diagnosis. Hum Reprod, 2017;32:568574.Google Scholar
Dolinko, AV, Farland, LV, Missmer, SA et al. Responses to fertility treatment among patients with cancer: a retrospective cohort study.Fertil Res Pract, 2018;4:3–018-0048–2. eCollection 2018.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsampras, N, Roberts, SA, Gould, D, Fitzgerald, CT. Ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation before oncology treatment: A retrospective cohort of 157 patients. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl), 2018;27:e12797.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedler, S, Koc, O, Gidoni, Y, Raziel, A, Ron-El, R. Ovarian response to stimulation for fertility preservation in women with malignant disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril, 2012;97:125133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oktay, K, Hourvitz, A, Sahin, G et al. Letrozole reduces estrogen and gonadotropin exposure in women with breast cancer undergoing ovarian stimulation before chemotherapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2006;91:38853890.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Domingo, J, Guillen, V, Ayllon, Y et al. Ovarian response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in cancer patients is diminished even before oncological treatment. Fertil Steril, 2012;97:930934.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deighton, KJ. Cancer–a systemic disease with local manifestations. Med Hypotheses, 1975;1:3741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jatoi, I. Breast cancer: a systemic or local disease? Am J Clin Oncol, 1997;20:536539.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leone, BA, Leone, J, Leone, JP. Breast cancer is a systemic disease rather than an anatomical process. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2017;161:619–017-4104–0. Epub 2017 January 9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldman, RH, Racowsky, C, Farland, LV et al. Predicting the likelihood of live birth for elective oocyte cryopreservation: a counseling tool for physicians and patients. Hum Reprod, 2017;32:853859.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kavic, SM, Sauer, MV. Oocyte donation treats infertility in survivors of malignancies: 10-year experience. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2001;18(3):181183.Google Scholar
Edgar, A, Morris, EMM, Kelnar, CJH, Wallace, WH. Long-term follow-up of survivors of childhood cancer. Endoc Dev, 2009;15:159180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Del Mastro, L, Catzeddu, T, Venturini, M. Infertility and pregnancy after breast cancer: current knowledge and future perspectives. Cancer Treat Rev, 2006;32(6):417422.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meirow, D, Epstein, M, Lewis, H, Nugent, D, Gosden, RG. Administration of cyclophosphamide at different stages of follicular maturation in mice: effects on reproductive performance and fetal malformations. Hum Reprod, 2001;16(4):632637.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawkins, MM. Pregnancy outcome and offspring after childhood cancer. BMJ, 1994;309(6961):1034.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sanders, JE, Hawley, J, Levy, W et al. Pregnancies following high-dose cyclophosphamide with or without high-dose busulfan or total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. Blood, 1996;87(7):30453052.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsen, EC, Loft, A, Holm, K et al. Oocyte donation in women cured of cancer with bone marrow transplantation including total body irradiation in adolescence. Hum Reprod, 2000;15(7):15051508.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bath, LE, Critchley, HO, Chambers, SE et al. Ovarian and uterine characteristics after total body irradiation in childhood and adolescence: response to sex steroid replacement. Br J Obstet Gynaecol, 1999;106(12):12651272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Urbano, MT, Tait, DM. Can the irradiated uterus sustain a pregnancy? A literature review. Clin Oncol, 2004;16(1):2428.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fenig, E, Mishaeli, M, Kalish, Y, Lishner, M. Pregnancy and radiation. Cancer Treat Rev, 2001;27(1):17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yih, MC, Spandorfer, SD, Rosenwaks, Z. Egg production predicts a doubling of in vitro fertilization pregnancy rates even within defined age and ovarian reserve categories. Fertil Steril, 2005;83(1):2429.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bath, LE, Wallace, WH, Shaw, MP, Fitzpatrick, C, Anderson, RA. Depletion of ovarian reserve in young women after treatment for cancer in childhood: detection by anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B and ovarian ultrasound. Hum Reprod, 2003;18(11):23682374.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsen, EC, Müller, J, Rechnitzer, C, Schmiegelow, K, Andersen, AN. Diminished ovarian reserve in female childhood cancer survivors with regular menstrual cycles and basal FSH <10 IU/l. Hum Reprod, 2003;18(2):417422.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Azim, AA, Rauch, ER, Ravich, Witkin S, Oktay, K. Ovarian reserve is impaired in cancer patients with normal baseline FSH who previously received chemotherapy as determined by response to controlled ovarian stimulation and anti-mullerian hormone measurements: a controlled study. Fertil Steril, 2006;86(3):S123S124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ginsburg, ES, Yanushpolsky, EH, Jackson, KV. In vitro fertilization for cancer patients and survivors. Fertil Steril, 2001;75(4):705710.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Azim, A, Costantini-Ferrando, M, Oktay, K. Safety of fertility preservation by ovarian stimulation with letrozole and gonadotropins in patients with breast cancer: a prospective controlled study. J Clin Oncol, 2008;26(16):26302635.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Azim, AA, Rauch, ER, Ravich, M, Witkin, S, Oktay, K. Ovarian reserve is impaired in cancer patients with normal baseline FSH who previously received chemotherapy as determined by response to controlled ovarian stimulation and anti-Müllerian hormone measurements: a controlled study. Fertil Steril, 2006;86(3):S123S124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oktay, K, Buyuk, E, Libertella, N, Akar, M, Rosenwaks, Z. Fertility preservation in breast cancer patients: a prospective controlled comparison of ovarian stimulation with tamoxifen and letrozole for embryo cryopreservation. J Clin Oncol, 2005;23(19):43474353.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oktay, K, Hourvitz, A, Sahin, G et al. Letrozole reduces estrogen and gonadotropin exposure in women with breast cancer undergoing ovarian stimulation before chemotherapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2006;91(10):38853890.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suikkari, A. In-vitro maturation: its role in fertility treatment. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol, 2008;20(3):242248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Banwell, KM, Thompson, JG. In vitro maturation of mammalian oocytes: outcomes and consequences. Semin Reprod Med, 2008;26(2):162174.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bustillo, M, Buster, JE, Cohen, SW et al. Delivery of a healthy infant following nonsurgical ovum transfer. JAMA, 1984;251(7):889.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lutjen, P, Trounson, A, Leeton, J et al. The establishment and maintenance of pregnancy using in vitro fertilization and embryo donation in a patient with primary ovarian failure. Nature, 1984;307(5947):174175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenwaks, Z, Veeck, LL, Liu, HC. Pregnancy following transfer of in vitro fertilized donated oocytes. Fertil Steril, 1986;45(3):417.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anselmo, AP, Cavalieri, E, Aragona, C et al. Successful pregnancies following an egg donation program in women with previously treated Hodgkin’s disease. Haematologica, 2001;86(6):624628.Google ScholarPubMed
Clarke, A, Gaff, C. Challenges in the genetic testing of children for familial cancers. Arch Dis Child, 2008;93(11):911914.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Offit, K, Kohut, K, Clagett, B et al. Cancer genetic testing and assisted reproduction. J Clin Oncol, 2006;24(29):47754782.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sagi, M, Weinberg, N, Eilat, A et al. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for BRCA1/2 – a novel clinical experience. Prenat Diagn, 2009;29(5):508513.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Xu, K, Rosenwaks, Z, Beaverson, K et al. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for retinoblastoma: the first reported liveborn. Am J Ophthalmol, 2004;137(1):1823.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Julian-Reynier, C, Chabal, F, Frebourg, T et al. Professionals assess the acceptability of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis for managing inherited predisposition to cancer. J Clin Oncol, 2009;27(27):44754480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lammens, C, Bleiker, E, Aaronson, N et al. Attitude towards pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for hereditary cancer. Fam Cancer, 2009;8(4):457464.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nagy, Z, Chang, C, Shapiro, D et al. Clinical evaluation of the efficiency of an oocyte donation program using egg cryo-banking. Fertil Steril, 2009;92(2):520526.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alkorta-Idiakez, I. Human tissue and cells regulation in Spain: looking at Europe to solve inner contradictions? Law Human Genome Rev, 2008;29:2543.Google Scholar
Jones, HW, Cohen, J. IFFS surveillance 07. Fertil Steril, 2007;87(4 Suppl 1):S167.Google ScholarPubMed
Practices Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine and Practices Committee of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Recommendations for gamete and embryo donation: a Committee opinion. Fertil Steril, 2013;99:4762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Inhorn, M, Patrizio, P. Rethinking reproductive “tourism” as reproductive “exile.Fertil Steril, 2009;92:904906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pennings, G, de Wert, G, Shenfield, F et al. ESHRE task force on ethics and law 15: cross-border reproductive care. Hum Reprod, 2008;23(10):21822184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tremlett, G. Spain becomes the destination of choice for fertility tourists from Britain. Guardian, May 12, 2006:p. 16.Google Scholar
Murphy, C. Rush to Spain for IVF is up 100 pc. Herald, September 9, 2009: Scholar
Andersen, AN, Goossens, V, Bhattacharya, S et al. Assisted reproductive technology and intrauterine inseminations in Europe, 2005. Results generated from European registers by the European IVF Monitoring Programme (EIM), for the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). Hum Reprod, 2009;24(6):1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. 2005 Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates: National Summary and Fertility Clinic Reports. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007.Google Scholar
The Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Financial compensation of oocyte donors: an Ethics Committee opinion. Fertil Steril, 2016;106(7):e15e19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
The Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Family members as gamete donors and surrogates. Fertil Steril, 2003;80(5):11241130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
US Department of Health and Human Services, US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. Guidance for Industry: Eligibility Determination for Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps), 2007. www.fda.govhttp://www.BiologicsBloodVaccines/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/Tissue/ucm073964.htm. (Accessed 2009)Google Scholar
Daar, J, Brzyski, R. Genetic screening of sperm and oocyte donors: ethical and policy implications. JAMA, 2009;302(15):17021704.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wallerstein, R, Jansen, V, Grifo, JA et al. Genetic screening of prospective oocyte donors. Fertil Steril, 1998;70(1):5255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maron, B, Lesser, J, Schiller, N et al. Implications of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy transmitted by sperm donation. JAMA, 2009;302(15):16811684.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Practices Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine and Practices Committee of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Guidelines for gamete and embryo donation: a Practice Committee report. Fertil Steril, 2008;90(Suppl.5):S30S44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singer, LM, Brodzinsky, DM, Ramsay, D, Steir, M, Waters, E. Mother–infant attachment in adoptive families. Child Dev, 1985;56(6):15431551.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scarr, S, Weinberg, RA. The Minnesota adoption studies: genetic differences and malleability. Child Dev, 1983;54(2):260267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kalfoglou, AL. Navigating conflict of interest in oocyte donation. Amer J Bioeth, 2001;1(4):W1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Melo-Martin, I, Cholst, IN. Researching human oocyte cryopreservation: ethical issues. Fertil Steril, 2008;89(3):523528.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maxwell, K, Cholst, I, Rosenwaks, Z. The incidence of both serious and minor complications in young women undergoing oocyte donation. Fertil Steril, 2008;90(6):21652171.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sauer, MV. Defining the incidence of serious complications experienced by oocyte donors: a review of 1000 cases. Obstet Gynecol, 2001;184(3):277278.Google ScholarPubMed
Bennett, SJ, Waterstone, JJ, Cheng, WC, Parsons, J.Complications of transvaginal ultrasound-directed follicle aspiration: a review of 2670 consecutive procedures. J Assist Reprod Genet, 1993;10(1):7277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bodri, D, Guilln, JJ, Polo, A et al. Complications related to ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval in 4052 oocyte donor cycles. Reprod Biomed Online, 2008;17(2):237243.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pereira, N, Voskuilen-Gonzalez, A, Hancock, K et al. Random-start ovarian stimulation in women desiring elective cryopreservation of oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online, 2017;35(4):400406.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Acevedo, B, Gomez-Palomares, JL, Ricciarelli, E, Hernández, ER. Triggering ovulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists does not compromise embryo implantation rates. Fertil Steril, 2006;86(6):16821687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Damewood, MD, Shen, W, Zacur, HA et al. Disappearance of exogenously administered human chorionic gonadotropin. Fertil Steril, 1989;52(3):398400.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yen, SS, Llerena, O, Little, B, Pearson, OH. Disappearance rates of endogenous luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1968;28(12):17631767.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Itskovitz-Eldor, J, Kol, S, Mannaerts, B. Use of a single bolus of GnRH agonist triptorelin to trigger ovulation after GnRH antagonist ganirelix treatment in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction, with special reference to the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Preliminary report: short communication. Hum Reprod, 2000;15(9):19651968.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Engmann, L, DiLuigi, A, Schmidt, D et al. The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to induce oocyte maturation after cotreatment with GnRH antagonist in high-risk patients undergoing in vitro fertilization prevents the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a prospective randomized controlled study. Fertil Steril, 2008;89(1):8491.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Melo, M, Busso, CE, Bellver, J et al. GnRH agonist versus recombinant hCG in an oocyte donation programme: a randomized, prospective, controlled, assessor-blind study. Reprod Biomed Online, 2009;19(4):486492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sismanoglu, A, Tekin, HI, Erden, HF et al. Ovulation triggering with GnRH agonist vs hCG in the same egg donor population undergoing donor oocyte cycles with GnRH antagonist: a prospective randomized cross-over trial. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2009;26(5):251256.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ludwig, AK, Glawatz, M, Griesinger, G, Diedrich, K, Ludwig, M.Perioperative and post-operative complications of transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval: prospective study of >1000 oocyte retrievals. Hum Reprod, 2006;21(12):32353240.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tureck, RW, Garcıa, CR, Blasco, L, Mastroianni, L. Perioperative complications arising after transvaginal oocyte retrieval. Obstet Gynecol, 1993;81(4):590.Google ScholarPubMed
Jun, S, Hornstein, M. Is there a role for preparatory cycle in ovum donation recipients? Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol, 2006;18(3):333337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenwaks, Z. Donor eggs: their application in modern reproductive technologies. Fertil Steril, 1987;47(6):895909.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Droesch, K, Navot, D, Scott, R et al. Transdermal estrogen replacement in ovarian failure for ovum donation. Fertil Steril, 1988;50(6):931934.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, OK, Rosenwaks, Z. Preparation of the endometrium for oocyte donation. J Assist Reprod Genet, 1993;10(7):457459.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Navot, D, Anderson, TL, Droesch, K et al.Hormonal manipulation of endometrial maturation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1989;68(4):801807.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Navot, D, Scott, RT, Droesch, K et al. The window of embryo transfer and the efficiency of human conception in vitro. Fertil Steril, 1991;55(1):114118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gibbons, WE, Toner, JP, Hamacher, P, Kolm, P. Experience with a novel vaginal progesterone preparation in a donor oocyte program. Fertil Steril, 1998;69(1):96101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, R, Navot, D, Liu, HC, Rosenwaks, Z. A human in vivo model for the luteoplacental shift. Fertil Steril, 1991;56(3):481484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats