Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-7nm9g Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-09-29T21:53:45.618Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

9 - Dynamic Effects of the “New-Age” Free Trade Agreement between Japan and Singapore

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2012

Thomas W. Hertel
Purdue University, USA
Terrie L. Walmsley
Purdue University, USA, and University of Melbourne, Australia, Australia
Ken Itakura
Purdue University, USA
Elena Ianchovichina
The World Bank, Washington, DC
Terrie L. Walmsley
Purdue University, Indiana
Get access



In the 1990s, there was a flood of regional trade agreements. By 2001, more than 130 such agreements were in place (WTO2000). The European Union, the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and MERCOSUR have been particularly effective at promoting intraregional trade. This success has led other countries to explore options for such regional agreements, and in December 1999, Japan and Singapore established a Joint Study Group to examine the feasibility and desirability of establishing an FTA. After a favorable report from the Study Group, negotiations commenced in early 2001 (Joint Study Group 2000a), and the Japan-Singapore FTA came into effect in November 2002.

The main elements of the Japan-Singapore FTA involve bilateral liberalization and facilitation of trade through reduction of tariff and nontariff barriers, as well as the mutual recognition of national standards, streamlining of customs procedures, facilitation of increased services trade, and the establishment of an exemplary framework for foreign investment. This “new-age” FTA also envisioned increased collaboration on intellectual property, education and training, media and broadcasting, and tourism. This trade agreement is particularly significant, because it is viewed by many as providing a possible template for future FTAs in the region, for example the FTA between Japan and Korea (KIEP 2000).

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Ahuja, V. and D., Filmer. 1995, July. Educational Attainment in Developing Countries: New Estimates and Projections Disaggregated by Gender. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 1489. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
Anderson, K. and H., Norheim. 1993. “Is World Trade Becoming More Regionalized?Review of International Economics 1 (2), 91–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, A. J. 1949. Applied Economics: Aspects of the World Economy in War and Peace. London: George Allen-Unwin.Google Scholar
Bureau of Economic Analysis. 1999. “International Accounts Data U.S. International Services: Cross-Border Trade & Sales through Affiliates, 1986–99.” Available at
Central Intelligence Agency. 1997. The World Factbook 1997–1998. Washington, DC: Brassey's.
CP, B. 1999, December. World Scan: The Core Version. The Hague: CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.Google Scholar
Dee, P. and K., Hanslow. 2000. Multilateral Liberalisation of Services Trade. Staff Research Paper. Melbourne, Australia: Productivity Commission.Google Scholar
Drysdale, P. 1967. Japanese-Australian Trade. Ph.D. dissertation, Australian National University, Canberra.Google Scholar
Drysdale, P. and R., Garnaut. 1982. “Trade Intensities and the Analysis of Bilateral Trade Flows in a Many-Country World”. Hitsubashi Journal of Economics 22 (2), 62–84.Google Scholar
Fan, M. and Y., Zheng. 2000. “China's Trade Liberalisation for WTO Accession and Its Effects on China – A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis”. Unpublished memo.Google Scholar
Feldstein, M. and C., Horioka. 1980. “Domestic Saving and International Capital Flows”. Economic Journal 90, 314–29.Google Scholar
Francois, J. 1998 September. Scale Economies and Imperfect Competition in the GTAP Model. GTAP Technical Paper No. 14. West Lafayette, IN: Center for Global Trade Analysis, Purdue University.Google Scholar
Francois, J. 1999. “A Gravity Approach to Measuring Services Protection”. Unpublished manuscript, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
Francois, J. and C., Shiells. 1994. Modeling Trade Policy: Applied General Equilibrium Assessments of North American Free Trade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Francois, J. and D., Spinanger. 2001. With Rags to Riches but Then What? Paper presented at the Fourth Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, June 27–9, West Lafayette, IN.Google Scholar
>Francois, J. and A., Strutt. 1999, June. “Post Uruguay Round Tariff Vectors for GTAP v.4.” Unpublished memo.
Harrison, J., M., Horridge, and K., Pearson. 1999. Decomposing Simulation Results with Respect to Exogenous Shocks. Paper presented at the Second Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, June 20–2, Denmark.Google Scholar
Harrison, W. J. and K. R., Pearson. 1996. “Computing Solutions for Large General Equilibrium Models Using GEMPACK”. Computational Economics 9, 83–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hertel, T. W. 1992. Introducing Imperfect Competition into the SALTER Model. Department of Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 93–3. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.Google Scholar
Hertel, T. W. 1997. Global Trade Analysis: Modeling and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hoekman, B. 1995. “Assessing the General Agreement on Trade in Services”. In W., Martin and L. A., Winters (eds.), The Uruguay Round and the Developing Economies. World Bank Discussion Paper 307 (pp. 327–64). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
Hummels, D. 2000. “Time as a Trade Barrier.” Unpublished manuscript, Purdue University. IDE-JETRO. 2000. Toward Closer Japan-Korea Economic Relations in the 21st Century. Available at E000606.html.
Ingco, M. 1996. “Tariffication in the Uruguay Round:How Much Liberalization?World Economy, 19 (4), 425–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joint Study Group. 2000a. Japan-Singapore Economic Agreement for a New-Age Partnership. Japan Study Group Report. Available at b.html.
Joint Study Group. (2000). Report on the Free Trade Agreement between Japan and Singapore. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan and Singapore.
Kawasaki, K. 1999. Foundations and Applications of Applied General Equilibrium Analysis: A Simulation Analysis on Economic Structural Reform. Tokyo:Nippon-Hyoronsha Co., Ltd.
Kojima, K. 1964. “The Pattern of International Trade among Advanced Countries”. Hitsubashi Journal of Economics 5 (1).Google Scholar
Korea Institute for International Economic Policy (KIEP). 2000. Economic Effects of and Policy Directions for Korea-Japan FTA. Washington, DC: KIEP.
Martin, W., B., Dimaranan, and T., Hertel. 1999. “Trade Policy, Structural Change and China's Trade Growth”. Unpublished memo.
McDougall, R. A., A., Elbehri, and T. P., Truong. 1998. Global Trade Assistance and Protection: The GTAP4Data Base. West Lafayette, IN: Center for Global Trade Analysis, Purdue University.Google Scholar
Nakajima, T. and Kwon, O. 2001. An Analysis of the Economic Effects of Japan-Korea FTA. Nigata, Japan: Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia (ERINA).Google Scholar
Tsutsumi, M. 2000. Regional Economic Integration and China's Participation to WTO. JCER Discussion Paper No. 60. Tokyo: Japan Center for Economic Research.Google Scholar
World Trade Organization. 2000. Trade Policy Review: Singapore. Geneva: WTO.

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats