Published online by Cambridge University Press: 24 February 2022
In addition to traditional criminal sanctions, a criminal conviction can trigger a wide variety of supplementary ramifications, further burdening individuals found guilty of a criminal offence. These have become known, especially in the United States, as ‘collateral consequences’ of conviction. The label is used, in particular, to refer to those civil sanctions and disabilities – that is, not formally designated as criminal punishment – activated by a criminal conviction, but not forming part of the direct consequences of it. Examples of collateral consequences include disenfranchisement, denial of government benefits, deportation, licensing or employment restrictions in a variety of occupations, and, for certain sexual offences, registration on a sex offender registry.