Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-bmjgf Total loading time: 1.49 Render date: 2022-12-07T23:15:17.882Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

References

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 August 2019

David C. Pyrooz
Affiliation:
University of Colorado Boulder
Scott H. Decker
Affiliation:
Arizona State University
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Competing for Control
Gangs and the Social Order of Prisons
, pp. 274 - 292
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adamson, Christopher. 2000. “Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 23 (2): 272–98. https://doi.org/10.1080/014198700329051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Akers, Ronald L., Hayner, Norman S., and Gruninger, Werner. 1977. “Prisonization in Five Countries: Type of Prison and Inmate Characteristics.” Criminology 14 (4): 527–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745–9125.1977.tb00042.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, Elijah. 1999. Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.Google Scholar
Association of State Correctional Administrators. 2013. “ASCA June 2013 Current Issues in Corrections Survey.” Hagerstown, MD. www.asca.net/system/assets/attachments/6468/ASCA%20June%202103%20Current%20Issues%20in%20Corrections%20Surveyfin.pdf?1384359439.
Ayling, Julie. 2011. “Gang Change and Evolutionary Theory.” Crime, Law and Social Change 56 (1): 126. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-011–9301–x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baćak, Valerio, and Wildeman, Christopher. 2015. “An Empirical Assessment of the ‘Healthy Prisoner Hypothesis’.” Social Science & Medicine 138 (Supplement C): 187–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.05.039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beaird, Lester H. 1986. “Prison Gangs: Texas.” Corrections Today 18 (July): 1822.Google Scholar
Belknap, Joanne, and Bowers, Molly. 2016. “Girls and Women in Gangs.” In The Wiley Handbook on the Psychology of Violence, edited by Cuevas, Carlos and Rennison, Calliee, 211–25. New York, NY: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Berg, Mark T. 2012. “The Overlap of Violent Offending and Violent Victimization: Assessing the Evidence and Explanations.” In Violent Offenders: Theory, Research, Policy, and Practice, edited by DeLisi, Matt and Conis, Peter J., 1738. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.Google Scholar
Bernard, H. Russell. 2012. “The Science in Social Science.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (51): 20796–9. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1218054109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Biderman, Albert D., and Reiss, Albert J. Jr. 1967. “On Exploring the ‘Dark Figure’ of Crime.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 374 (1): 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Biondi, Karina. 2016. Sharing This Walk: An Ethnography of Prison Life and the PCC in Brazil. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bjorgo, Tore, and Horgan, John. 2008. Leaving Terrorism behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boin, Arjen, and Rattray, William A. R.. 2004. “Understanding Prison Riots: Towards a Threshold Theory.” Punishment & Society 6 (1): 4765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bolden, Christian. 2013. “Tales from the Hood: An Emic Perspective on Gang Joining and Gang Desistance.” Criminal Justice Review 38 (4): 473–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouchard, Martin, and Spindler, Andrea. 2010. “Groups, Gangs, and Delinquency: Does Organization Matter?” Journal of Criminal Justice 38 (5): 921–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.06.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boxer, Paul. 2011. “Negative Peer Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy for the Treatment of Youth Problem Behavior: Exploring Outcome and Process Variables in ‘Real-World’ Practice.” Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 40: 848–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boxer, Paul, Kubik, Joanna, Ostermann, Michael, and Veysey, Bonita. 2015. “Gang Involvement Moderates the Effectiveness of Evidence-Based Intervention for Justice-Involved Youth.” Children and Youth Services Review 52: 2633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brenneman, Robert. 2011. Homies and Hermanos: God and Gangs in Central America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bubolz, Bryan F., and Simi, Pete. 2015. “Disillusionment and Change: A Cognitive-Emotional Theory of Gang Exit.” Deviant Behavior 36 (4): 330–45. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2014.935655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buentello, Salvador, Fong, Robert S., and Vogel, Ronald E.. 1991. “Prison Gang Development: A Theoretical Model.” The Prison Journal 71 (2): 314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burman, Michelle Lynn. 2012. Resocializing and Repairing Homies within the Texas Prison System: A Case Study on Security Threat Group Management, Administrative Segregation, Prison Gang Renunciation and Safety for All. Austin, TX: The University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
Butler, Michelle, Slade, Gavin, and Dias, Camila Nunes. 2018. “Self-Governing Prisons: Prison Gangs in an International Perspective.” Trends in Organized Crime, March, 116. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-018–9338–7.CrossRef
Camp, George M., and Camp, Camille Graham. 1985. “Prison Gangs: Their Extent, Nature, and Impact on Prisons.” Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Campbell, Donald T., and Fiske, Donald W.. 1959. “Convergent and Discriminant Validation by the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix.” Psychological Bulletin 56 (2): 81105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cantor, David, and Lynch, James P.. 2000. “Self-Report Surveys as Measures of Crime and Criminal Victimization.” Criminal Justice 4: 85138.Google Scholar
Carlson, Peter M. 2001. “Prison Interventions: Evolving Strategies to Control Security Threat Groups.” Corrections Management Quarterly 5 (1): 1022.Google Scholar
Carson, Dena C., and Esbensen, Finn-Aage. 2017. “Gangs in School: Exploring the Experiences of Gang-Involved Youth.” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 17 (1): 323. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204017739678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carson, Dena C., Peterson, Dana, and Esbensen, Finn-Aage. 2013. “Youth Gang Desistance: An Examination of the Effect of Different Operational Definitions of Desistance on the Motivations, Methods, and Consequences Associated with Leaving the Gang.” Criminal Justice Review 38 (4): 510–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carson, Dena C., and Vecchio, J. Michael. 2015. “Leaving the Gang: A Review and Thoughts on Future Research.” In The Handbook of Gangs, edited by Decker, Scott H. and Pyrooz, David C., 257–75. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Carson, E. Ann. 2015. “Prisoners in 2014.” NCJ 248955. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
Carson, E. “Prisoners in 2016.” NCJ 251149. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Statistics.
Carson, E. Ann, and Anderson, Elizabeth. 2016. “Prisoners in 2015.” NCJ 250229. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
Clemmer, Donald. 1940. The Prison Community. New York, NY: Rhinehart.Google Scholar
Cloward, Richard A., and Ohlin, Lloyd E.. 1960. Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
Cohen, Sheldon, Kamarck, Tom, and Mermelstein, Robin. 1983. “A Global Measure of Perceived Stress.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 24 (4): 385–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coid, Jeremy W., Ullrich, Simone, Keers, Robert, et al. 2013. “Gang Membership, Violence, and Psychiatric Morbidity.” American Journal of Psychiatry 170 (9): 985–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crewe, Ben. 2012. The Prisoner Society: Power, Adaptation, and Social Life in an English Prison. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crouch, Ben M., and Marquart, James W.. 1989. An Appeal to Justice: Litigated Reform of Texas Prisons. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Cullen, Francis T. 2011. “Beyond Adolescence-Limited Criminology: Choosing Our Future – The American Society of Criminology 2010 Sutherland Address.” Criminology 49: 287330. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745–9125.2011.00224.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cullen, Francis T., Agnew, Robert, and Wilcox, Pamela. 2017. Criminological Theory: Past to Present. 6th ed. Essential Readings. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Cunha, Manuela. 2014. “The Ethnography of Prisons and Penal Confinement.” Annual Review of Anthropology 43: 217–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curry, G. David. 2000. “Self-Reported Gang Involvement and Officially Recorded Delinquency.” Criminology 38 (4): 1253–74. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745–9125.2000.tb01422.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curry, G. David 2015. “The Logic of Defining Gangs Revisited.” In The Handbook of Gangs, edited by Decker, Scott H. and Pyrooz, David C., 727. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curry, G. David, Decker, Scott H., and Pyrooz, David C.. 2014. Confronting Gangs: Crime and Community. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Decker, Scott H. 1996. “Collective and Normative Features of Gang Violence.” Justice Quarterly 13 (2): 243–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418829600092931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Decker, Scott H., Bynum, Tim, and Weisel, Deborah. 1998. “A Tale of Two Cities: Gangs as Organized Crime Groups.” Justice Quarterly 15 (3): 395425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Decker, Scott H., and Curry, G. David. 2002. “Gangs, Gang Homicides, and Gang Loyalty: Organized Crimes or Disorganized Criminals.” Journal of Criminal Justice 30 (4): 343–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Decker, Scott H., Katz, Charles M., and Webb, Vincent J.. 2008. “Understanding the Black Box of Gang Organization: Implications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization.” Crime & Delinquency 54 (1): 153–72. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128706296664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Decker, Scott H., and Lauritsen, Janet L.. 2002. “Leaving the Gang.” In Gangs in America III, edited by Huff, C. Ronald, 5170. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Decker, Scott H., Melde, Chris, and Pyrooz, David C.. 2013. “What Do We Know about Gangs and Gang Members and Where Do We Go from Here?” Justice Quarterly 30 (3): 369402. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2012.732101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Decker, Scott H., and Pyrooz, David C.. 2010. “On the Validity and Reliability of Gang Homicide: A Comparison of Disparate Sources.” Homicide Studies 14 (4): 359–76. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088767910385400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Decker, Scott H., and Pyrooz, David C.. 2011. “Leaving the Gang: Logging Off and Moving On.” New York, NY: Council on Foreign Relations. www.cfr.org/sites/default/files/pdf/2011/11/SAVE_paper_Decker_Pyrooz.pdf.Google Scholar
Decker, Scott H., and Pyrooz, David C.. 2015. “The Real Gangbanging Is in Prison.” In Oxford Handbook of Prisons and Imprisonment, edited by Woolredge, John and Smith, Paula, 143–62. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Decker, Scott H., Pyrooz, David C., and Moule Jr, Richard K.. 2014. “Disengagement from Gangs as Role Transitions.” Journal of Research on Adolescence 24 (2): 268–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Decker, Scott H., Pyrooz, David C., Sweeten, Gary, and Moule Jr., Richard K. 2014. “Validating Self-Nomination in Gang Research: Assessing Differences in Gang Embeddedness across Non-, Current, and Former Gang Members.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 30 (4): 577–98. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-014–9215–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Decker, Scott H., and Barrik, Van Winkle. 1994. “‘Slinging Dope’: The Role of Gangs and Gang Members in Drug Sales.” Justice Quarterly 11 (4): 583604. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418829400092441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Decker, Scott H., and Barrik, Van Winkle. 1996. Life in the Gang: Family, Friends, and Violence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeLisi, Matt, Trulson, Chad R., Marquart, James W., Drury, Alan J., and Kosloski, Anna E.. 2011. “Inside the Prison Black Box: Toward a Life Course Importation Model of Inmate Behavior.” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 55 (8): 1186–1207. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X11383956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Densley, James A. 2013. How Gangs Work: An Ethnography of Youth Violence. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Densley, James A. 2014. “It’s Gang Life, but Not as We Know It: The Evolution of Gang Business.” Crime & Delinquency 60 (4): 517–46. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128712437912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Densley, James A. 2015. “Joining the Gang: A Process of Supply and Demand.” In The Handbook of Gangs, edited by Decker, Scott H. and Pyrooz, David C., 235–56. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Densley, James A. 2018. “Gang Joining.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264079.013.437.CrossRef
Densley, James A., and Pyrooz, David C.. 2017. “A Signaling Perspective on Disengagement from Gangs.” Justice Quarterly: 128. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2017.1357743.CrossRef
Descormiers, Karine, and Corrado, Raymond R.. 2016. “The Right to Belong: Individual Motives and Youth Gang Initiation Rites.” Deviant Behavior 37 (11): 1341–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2016.1177390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deuchar, Ross. 2018. Gangs and Spirituality: Global Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DiIulio, John J. 1987. Governing Prisons: A Comparative Study of Correctional Management. New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
DiMaggio, Paul, Hargittai, Eszter, Neuman, W. Russell, and Robinson, John P.. 2001. “Social Implications of the Internet.” Annual Review of Sociology 27 (1): 307–36. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Durkheim, Emile. 1951. Suicide: A Study in Sociology. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
Ebaugh, Helen Rose Fuchs. 1988. Becoming an Ex: The Process of Role Exit. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eidson, Jillian L., Roman, Caterina G., and Cahill, Meagan. 2016. “Successes and Challenges in Recruiting and Retaining Gang Members in Longitudinal Research: Lessons Learned from a Multisite Social Network Study.” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, July. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204016657395.CrossRef
Esbensen, Finn-Aage, and Carson, Dena C.. 2012. “Who Are the Gangsters? An Examination of the Age, Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Immigration Status of Self-Reported Gang Members in a Seven-City Study of American Youth.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 28 (4): 465–81. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043986212458192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Esbensen, Finn-Aage, Osgood, D. Wayne, Peterson, Dana, Taylor, Terrance J., and Carson, Dena C.. 2013. “Short- and Long-Term Outcome Results from a Multisite Evaluation of the G.R.E.A.T. Program.” Criminology & Public Policy 12 (3): 375411. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9133.12048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Esbensen, , Finn-Aage, , Peterson, Dana, Taylor, Terrance J., and Freng, Adrienne. 2010. Youth Violence: Sex and Race Differences in Offending, Victimization, and Gang Membership. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
Esbensen, , Finn-Aage, , Winfree, L. Thomas, He, Ni, and Taylor, Terrance J.. 2001. “Youth Gangs and Definitional Issues: When Is a Gang a Gang, and Why Does it Matter?” Crime & Delinquency 47 (1): 105–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128701047001005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fagan, Jeffrey. 1989. “The Social Organization of Drug Use and Drug Dealing among Urban Gangs.” Criminology 27 (4): 633–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fagan, Jeffrey 1990. “Social Processes of Delinquency and Drug Use among Urban Gangs.” In Gangs in America, edited by Huff, C. Ronald, 183219. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Fahmy, Chantal. 2018. Physical Health, Social Support, and Reentry: A Longitudinal Examination of Formerly Incarcerated Individuals. Doctoral Dissertation. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona State University. https://repository.asu.edu/attachments/207476/content/Fahmy_asu_0010E_18214.pdf.
Farrington, David P., and Welsh, Brandon C.. 2008. Saving Children from a Life of Crime: Early Risk Factors and Effective Interventions. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Federal Bureau of Prisons. 2017. “Our Locations.” www.bop.gov/locations/list.jsp.
Felson, Marcus. 2006. “The Street Gang Strategy.” In Crime and Nature. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Fischer, Daryl R. 2002. “Arizona Department of Corrections: Security Threat Group (STG) Program Evaluation.” Final Report. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
Fishman, Joseph Fulling. 1934. Sex in Prison: Revealing Sex Conditions in American Prisons. New York, NY: National Library Press.Google Scholar
Fleisher, Mark S. 1989. Warehousing Violence. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Fleisher, Mark S., and Decker, Scott H.. 2001a. “Going Home, Staying Home: Integrating Prison Gang Members into the Community.” Corrections Management Quarterly 5: 6577.Google Scholar
Fleisher, Mark S., and Decker, Scott H.. 2001b. “An Overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs.” Corrections Management Quarterly 5 (1): 111.Google Scholar
Flores, Edward. 2013. God’s Gangs: Barrio Ministry, Masculinity, and Gang Recovery. New York, NY: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fong, Robert S. 1990. “The Organizational Structure of Prison Gangs: A Texas Case Study.” Federal Probation 54: 3643.Google Scholar
Fong, Robert S., and Buentello, Salvador. 1991. “The Detection of Prison Gang Development: An Empirical Assessment.” Fed. Probation 55: 66.Google Scholar
Fong, Robert S., and Vogel, Ronald E.. 1995. “Blood-in, Blood-out: The Rationale behind Defecting from Prison Gangs.” Journal of Gang Research 2 (4): 4551.Google Scholar
Fox, Kathleen A. 2013. “New Developments and Implications for Understanding the Victimization of Gang Members.” Violence and Victims 28 (6): 1015–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, Kathleen A., Lane, Jodi, and Akers, Ronald L.. 2010. “Do Perceptions of Neighborhood Disorganization Predict Crime or Victimization? An Examination of Gang Member versus Non-Gang Member Jail Inmates.” Journal of Criminal Justice 38 (4): 720–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.04.046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, Kathleen A., Lane, Jodi, and Turner, Susan F.. 2018. Encountering Correctional Populations: A Practical Guide for Researchers. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Gaes, Gerald G., Wallace, Susan, Gilman, Evan, Klein-Saffran, Jody, and Suppa, Sharon. 2002. “The Influence of Prison Gang Affiliation on Violence and Other Prison Misconduct.” The Prison Journal 82: 359–85. https://doi.org/10.1177/003288550208200304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaston, Shytierra, and Huebner, Beth M.. 2015. “Gangs in Correctional Institutions.” In The Handbook of Gangs, edited by Decker, Scott H. and Pyrooz, David C., 328–44. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Gibson, Chris L., Swatt, Marc L., Mitchell Miller, J., Jennings, Wesley G., and Gover, Angela R.. 2012. “The Causal Relationship between Gang Joining and Violent Victimization: A Critical Review and Directions for Future Research.” Journal of Criminal Justice 40 (6): 490501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goffman, Erving. 1968. Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates. New Brunswick, NJ: AldineTransaction.Google Scholar
Goodman, Philip. 2008. “It’s Just Black, White or Hispanic: An Observational Study of Racializing Moves in California’s Segregated Prison Reception Centers.” Law & Society Review 42 (4): 735–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gottfredson, Michael R., and Hirschi, Travis. 1990. A General Theory of Crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Gravel, Jason, Allison, Blake, West-Fagan, Jenny, McBride, Michael, and Tita, George E.. 2018. “Birds of a Feather Fight Together: Status-Enhancing Violence, Social Distance and the Emergence of Homogenous Gangs.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 34 (1): 189219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffin, Marie L., and Hepburn, John R.. 2006. “The Effect of Gang Affiliation on Violent Misconduct among Inmates during the Early Years of Confinement.” Criminal Justice and Behavior 33 (4): 419–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gundur, R. V. 2018. “The Changing Social Organization of Prison Protection Markets: When Prisoners Choose to Organize Horizontally Rather than Vertically.” Trends in Organized Crime, February, 119. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-018–9332–0.CrossRef
Hagan, John, and Dinovitzer, Ronit. 1999. “Collateral Consequences of Imprisonment for Children, Communities, and Prisoners.” Crime and Justice 26: 121–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hagedorn, John M. 1994. “Homeboys, Dope Fiends, Legits, and New Jacks.” Criminology 32 (2): 197219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hart, Timothy C., and Rennison, Callie Marie. 2003. Reporting Crime to the Police, 1992–2000. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hensley, Christopher. 2000. “Attitudes Toward Homosexuality in a Male and Female Prison: An Exploratory Study.” The Prison Journal 80: 434–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hepburn, John R. 2013. “Keynote Address: Get Dirty. WSC Conference, 2013, Berkeley, California.” Western Criminology Review 14 (1): 15.Google Scholar
Hill, Cece. 2009. “Gangs/Security Threat Groups.” Corrections Compendium 34 (1): 2337.Google Scholar
Hill, Karl G., Howell, James C., Hawkins, J. David, and Battin-Pearson, Sara R.. 1999. “Childhood Risk Factors for Adolescent Gang Membership: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 36 (3): 300–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427899036003003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howell, James C. 2015. The History of Street Gangs in the United States: Their Origins and Transformations. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Howell, James C., and Griffiths, Elizabeth. 2015. Gangs in America’s Communities. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Huebner, Beth M. 2003. “Administrative Determinants of Inmate Violence: A Multilevel Analysis.” Journal of Criminal Justice 31 (2): 107–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0047–2352(02)00218–0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huebner, Beth M., Martin, Kimberly, Moule, Richard K. Jr., Pyrooz, David, and Decker, Scott H.. 2016. “Dangerous Places: Gang Members and Neighborhood Levels of Gun Assault.” Justice Quarterly 33 (5): 836–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2014.984751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huebner, Beth M., Varano, Sean P., and Bynum, Timothy S.. 2007. “Gangs, Guns, and Drugs: Recidivism among Serious, Young Offenders.” Criminology & Public Policy 6 (2): 187221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huey, Meredith P., and Mcnulty, Thomas L.. 2005. “Institutional Conditions and Prison Suicide: Conditional Effects of Deprivation and Overcrowding.” The Prison Journal 85 (4): 490514. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032885505282258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huff, C. Ronald, and Meyer, Matthew. 1997. “Managing Prison Gangs and Other Security Threat Groups.” Corrections Management Quarterly 1 (4): 1018.Google Scholar
Hughes, Lorine A. 2013. “Group Cohesiveness, Gang Member Prestige, and Delinquency and Violence in Chicago, 1959–1962.” Criminology 51 (4): 795832. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745–9125.12020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hummer, Don, and Ahlin, Eileen M.. 2018. “Exportation Hypothesis: Bringing Prison Violence Home to the Community.” In Division on Corrections & Sentencing Handbook, edited by Frost, Natasha A. and Huebner, Beth M.. Vol. 3. Columbus: OH: American Society of Criminology.Google Scholar
Hunt, Geoffrey, Riegel, Stephanie, Morales, Tomas, and Waldorf, Dan. 1993. “Changes in Prison Culture: Prison Gangs and the Case of the ‘Pepsi Generation’.” Social Problems 40 (3): 398409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Irwin, John. 1970. The Felon. Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Irwin, John 1980. Prisons in Turmoil. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
Irwin, John, and Cressey, Donald R.. 1962. “Thieves, Convicts and the Inmate Culture.” Social Problems 10: 142–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobs, James B. 1974. “Street Gangs behind Bars.” Social Problems 21 (3): 395409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobs, James B. 1977. Stateville: The Penitentiary in Mass Society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Jacobs, James B. 2001. “Focusing on Prison Gangs.” Corrections Management Quarterly 5 (1): vivii.Google Scholar
Jennings, Wesley G., Piquero, Alex R., and Reingle, Jennifer M.. 2012. “On the Overlap between Victimization and Offending: A Review of the Literature.” Aggression and Violent Behavior 17 (1): 1626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2011.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Andrew, and Densley, James. 2018. “Rio’s New Social Order: How Religion Signals Disengagement from Prison Gangs.” Qualitative Sociology 41 (2): 243–62, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11133-018–9379–x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Brian D. 2010. “Multilevel Analysis in the Study of Crime and Justice.” In Handbook of Quantitative Criminology, edited by Piquero, Alex R. and Weisburd, David, 615–48. New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978–0-387–77650-7_30.Google Scholar
Katz, Charles, Fox, Andrew, Britt, Chester, and Stevenson, Phillip. 2012. “Understanding Police Gang Data at the Aggregate Level: An Examination of the Reliability of National Youth Gang Survey Data.” Justice Research and Policy 14 (2): 103–28. https://doi.org/10.3818/JRP.14.2.2012.103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Katz, Jack, and Curtis, Jackson-Jacobs. 2004. “The Criminologists’ Gang.” In The Blackwell Companion to Criminology, edited by Sumner, Colin, 91124. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
Kirk, David S., and Papachristos, Andrew V.. 2011. “Cultural Mechanisms and the Persistence of Neighborhood Violence.” American Journal of Sociology 116 (4): 11901233. https://doi.org/10.1086/655754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kissner, Jason, and Pyrooz, David C.. 2009. “Self-Control, Differential Association, and Gang Membership: A Theoretical and Empirical Extension of the Literature.” Journal of Criminal Justice 37 (5): 478–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, Malcolm W. 1971. Street Gangs and Street Workers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
Klein, Malcolm W. 1995. The American Street Gang: Its Nature, Prevalence and Control. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Klein, Malcolm W. 2005. “The Value of Comparisons in Street Gang Research.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 21 (2): 135–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043986204272911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, Malcolm W., and Crawford, Lois Y.. 1967. “Groups, Gangs, and Cohesiveness.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 4 (1): 6375. https://doi.org/10.1177/002242786700400105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, Malcolm W., and Maxson, Cheryl L.. 2006. Street Gang Patterns and Policies. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kreager, Derek A., and Kruttschnitt, Candace. 2017. “Inmate Society in the Era of Mass Incarceration.” Annual Review of Criminology, October. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-criminol–032317–092513.CrossRef
Kreager, Derek A., Schaefer, David R., Bouchard, Martin, Haynie, Dana L., Wakefield, Sara, Young, Jacob, and Zajac, Gary. 2016. “Toward a Criminology of Inmate Networks.” Justice Quarterly 33 (6): 1000–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2015.1016090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kreager, Derek A., Young, Jacob T. N., Haynie, Dana L., Bouchard, Martin, Schaefer, David R., and Zajac, Gary. 2017. “Where ‘Old Heads’ Prevail: Inmate Hierarchy in a Men’s Prison Unit.” American Sociological Review 82 (4): 685718. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122417710462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krienert, Jessie L., and Fleisher, Mark S.. 2001. “Gang Membership as a Proxy for Social Deficiencies: A Study of Nebraska Inmates.” Corrections Management Quarterly 5 (1): 4758.Google Scholar
Krohn, Marvin D., and Thornberry, Terence P.. 2008. “Longitudinal Perspectives on Adolescent Street Gangs.” In The Long View of Crime: A Synthesis of Longitudinal Research, edited by Liberman, Akiva M., 128–60. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
Krohn, Marvin D., Thornberry, Terence P., Gibson, Chris L., and Baldwin, Julie M.. 2010. “The Development and Impact of Self-Report Measures of Crime and Delinquency.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 26 (4): 509–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lane, Jeffrey. 2018. The Digital Street. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laub, John H., and Sampson, Robert J.. 2003. Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives: Delinquent Boys to Age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2003–88395-000.Google Scholar
Lauderdale, Michael, and Burman, Michelle. 2009. “Contemporary Patterns of Female Gangs in Correctional Settings.” Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 19 (3): 258–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/10911350802694766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lauger, Timothy. 2012. Real Gangstas: Legitimacy, Reputation, and Violence in the Intergang Environment. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
Lessing, Benjamin. 2010. “The Danger of Dungeons: Prison Gangs and Incarcerated Militant Groups.” Small Arms Survey 6: 157–83.Google Scholar
Lessing, Benjamin 2016. “Inside Out: The Challenge of Prison-Based Criminal Organizations.” Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
Lessing, Benjamin 2017. “Counterproductive Punishment: How Prison Gangs Undermine State Authority.” Rationality and Society 29 (3): 257–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043463117701132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lopez-Aguado, Patrick. 2016. “‘I Would Be a Bulldog’: Tracing the Spillover of Carceral Identity.” Social Problems, March, spw001. https://doi.org/10.1093/socpro/spw001.CrossRef
Lopez-Aguado, Patrick 2018. Stick Together and Come Back Home: Racial Sorting and the Spillover of Carceral Identity. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyman, Michael D. 1989. Gangland. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
Maitra, Dev, McLean, Robert, and Holligan, Chris. 2017. “Voices of Quiet Desistance in UK Prisons: Exploring Emergence of New Identities under Desistance Constraint.” The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice 56 (4): 437–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/hojo.12213.Google Scholar
Maruna, Shadd. 2001. Making Good: How Ex-Convicts Reform and Rebuild Their Lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsuda, Kristy N., Melde, Chris, Taylor, Terrance J., Freng, Adrienne, and Esbensen, Finn-Aage. 2013. “Gang Membership and Adherence to the ‘Code of the Street’.” Justice Quarterly 30 (3): 440–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maxson, Cheryl L. 1998. “Gang Members on the Move.” Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maxson, Cheryl L. 2012. “Betwixt and between Street and Prison Gangs: Defining Gangs and Structures in Youth Correctional Facilities.” In Youth Gangs in International Perspective, edited by Esbensen, Finn-Aage and Maxson, Cheryl L., 107–24. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
Maxson, Cheryl L., Bradstreet, Charlotte E., Gascón, Danny, et al. 2012. Gangs and Violence in California’s Youth Correctional Facilities: A Research Foundation for Developing Effective Gang Policies. Irvine, CA: Department of Criminology, Law and Society, University of California, Irvine.Google Scholar
Maxson, Cheryl L., and Klein, Malcolm W.. 1995. “Investigating Gang Structures.” Journal of Gang Research 3 (1): 3340.Google Scholar
Maxson, Cheryl L., Whitlock, Monica L., and Klein, Malcolm W.. 1998. “Vulnerability to Street Gang Membership: Implications for Practice.” Social Service Review 72 (1): 7091. https://doi.org/10.1086/515746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGloin, Jean M., and Collins, Megan E.. 2015. “Micro-Level Processes of the Gang.” In The Handbook of Gangs, edited by Decker, Scott H. and Pyrooz, David C., 276–93. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Mears, Daniel P., and Cochran, Joshua C.. 2015. Prisoner Reentry in the Era of Mass Incarceration. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mears, Daniel P., Stewart, Eric A., Siennick, Sonja E., and Simons, Ronald L.. 2013. “The Code of the Street and Inmate Violence: Investigating the Salience of Imported Belief Systems.” Criminology 51 (3): 695728. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745–9125.12017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Melde, Chris, and Esbensen, Finn-Aage. 2011. “Gang Membership as a Turning Point in the Life Course.” Criminology 49 (2): 513–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Melde, Chris, and Esbensen, Finn-Aage 2014. “The Relative Impact of Gang Status Transitions: Identifying the Mechanisms of Change in Delinquency.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 51 (3): 349–76. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0022427813507059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Melde, Chris, Taylor, Terrance J., and Esbensen, Finn-Aage. 2009. “‘I Got Your Back’: An Examination of the Protective Function of Gang Membership in Adolescence.” Criminology 47 (2): 565–94. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745–9125.2009.00148.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, Walter B. 1975. Violence by Youth Gangs and Youth Groups as a Crime Problem in Major American Cities. Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, National Institute for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
Mitchell, Meghan M., Fahmy, Chantal, Pyrooz, David C., and Decker, Scott H.. 2017. “Criminal Crews, Codes, and Contexts: Differences and Similarities across the Code of the Street, Convict Code, Street Gangs, and Prison Gangs.” Deviant Behavior 38 (10): 126. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2016.1246028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, Meghan M., McCullough, Kallee, Wu, Jun, Pyrooz, David C., and Decker, Scott H.. 2018. “Survey Research with Gang and Non-Gang Members in Prison: Operational Lessons from the LoneStar Project.” Trends in Organized Crime, March, 129. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-018–9331–1.CrossRef
Mizzi, Shannon. 2015. “The Behavioral Economist’s Case for Prison Gangs.” Wilson Quarterly. March 2. https://wilsonquarterly.com/stories/behavioral-economists-case-for-prison-gangs/.
Moore, Joan W., Garcia, Robert, Moore, Joan W., and Garcia, Carlos. 1978. Homeboys: Gangs, Drugs, and Prison in the Barrios of Los Angeles. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
Morenoff, Jeffrey D., and Harding, David J.. 2014. “Incarceration, Prisoner Reentry, and Communities.” Annual Review of Sociology 40 (July): 411–29. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc–071811–145511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moule, Richard K. Jr., Pyrooz, David C., and Decker, Scott H.. 2014. “Internet Adoption and Online Behaviour among American Street Gangs: Integrating Gangs and Organizational Theory.” British Journal of Criminology 54 (6): 11861206. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azu050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mumola, Christopher J. 2005. “Suicide and Homicide in State Prisons and Local Jails.” Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Statistics. www.prisonpolicy.org/scans/bjs/shsplj.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Narag, Raymund E., and Lee, Sou. 2018. “Putting out Fires: Understanding the Developmental Nature and Roles of Inmate Gangs in the Philippine Overcrowded Jails.” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 62 (11): 3509–35. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X17744726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
National Gang Intelligence Center. 2011. “2011 National Gang Threat Assessment – Emerging Trends.” Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigation, National Gang Intelligence Center. www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/2011-national-gang-threat-assessment/2011-national-gang-threat-assessment-emerging-trends.
National Research Council. 2014. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences, edited by Travis, Jeremy, Western, Bruce, and Redburn, Steve. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
New York Times. 1931. “Penologists Back Wickersham Data.” New York Times, October 23.
Noonan, Margaret, Rohloff, Scott, and Ginder, Scott. 2016. Mortality in State Prisons, 2001–2014 – Statistical Tables.” Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
Nye, Joseph S. 2004. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York, NY: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
Nye, Joseph S. 2009. “Get Smart: Combining Hard and Soft Power.” Foreign Affairs: 160–3.
Orlando-Morningstar, Dennise. 1997. “Prison Gangs.” Special Needs Offender Bulletin 2 (August): 113.Google Scholar
Ouellet, Marie, Bouchard, Martin, and Charette, Yanick. 2019. “One Gang Dies, Another Gains? The Network Dynamics of Criminal Group Persistence.” Criminology 57 (1): 533. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9125.12194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Owen, Barbara, Wells, James, and Pollock, Joycelyn. 2017. In Search of Safety: Confronting Inequality in Women’s Imprisonment. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paoli, Letizia. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime. Oxford Handbooks. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Papachristos, Andrew V. 2009. “Murder by Structure: Dominance Relations and the Social Structure of Gang Homicide.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (1): 74128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Papachristos, Andrew V. 2011. “The Coming of a Networked Criminology?” In Advances in Criminological Theory, edited by MacDonald, John, 17: 101–40. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
Papachristos, Andrew V., Hureau, David M., and Braga, Anthony A.. 2013. “The Corner and the Crew: The Influence of Geography and Social Networks on Gang Violence.” American Sociological Review 78 (3): 417–47. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122413486800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Papachristos, Andrew V., Meares, Tracey L., and Fagan, Jeffrey. 2012. “Why Do Criminals Obey the Law: The Influence of Legitimacy and Social Networks on Active Gun Offenders.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 102: 397440.Google Scholar
Pelz, Mary E., Marquart, James W., and Pelz, C. Terry. 1991. “Right-Wing Extremism in the Texas Prisons: The Rise and Fall of the Aryan Brotherhood in Texas.” The Prison Journal 71 (1): 2337. https://doi.org/10.1177/003288559107100204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perkinson, Robert. 2010. Texas Tough: The Rise of America’s Prison Empire. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
Petersilia, Joan, Abarbanel, Sara, Butler, John S., Feldman, Mark, Hinds, Mariam, Jason, Kevin E., Keel, Corinne, Owens, Matthew J., and Vilkin, Camden. 2014. “Voices from the Field: How California Stakeholders View Public Safety Realignment.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2395498. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2395498.Google Scholar
Peterson, Dana, Carson, Dena C., and Fowler, Eric. 2018. “What’s Sex (Composition) Got to Do with It? The Importance of Sex Composition of Gangs for Female and Male Members’ Offending and Victimization.” Justice Quarterly, January. www.tandfonline.com/doi/ref/10.1080/07418825.2018.1424231?scroll=top.CrossRef
Pfaff, John. 2017. Locked in: The True Causes of Mass Incarceration – and How to Achieve Real Reform. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Phillips, Coretta. 2012. “‘It Ain’t Nothing Like America with the Bloods and the Crips’: Gang Narratives inside Two English Prisons.” Punishment & Society 14 (1): 5168. https://doi.org/10.1177/1462474511424683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phinney, Jean S. 1992. “The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A New Scale for Use with Diverse Groups.” Journal of Adolescent Research 7 (2): 156–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pinkerton, James. 2014. “Prisons Study Ways to Reduce Solitary Confinement.” Houston Chronicle, March 15. www.houstonchronicle.com/news/houston-texas/houston/article/Prisons-study-ways-to-reduce-solitary-confinement-5321117.php.
Piquero, Alex R., Farrington, David P., and Blumstein, Alfred. 2003. “The Criminal Career Paradigm.” Crime and Justice 30 (January): 359506. https://doi.org/10.1086/652234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piquero, Alex R., Farrington, David P., and Blumstein, Alfred 2007. Key Issues in Criminal Career Research: New Analyses of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pratt, Travis C. 2009. Addicted to Incarceration. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Prendergast, Alan. 2014. “After the Murder of Tom Clements, Can Colorado’s Prison System Rehabilitate Itself?” Westword, August 21. www.westword.com/news/after-the-murder-of-tom-clements-can-colorados-prison-system-rehabilitate-itself-5125050.
Pyrooz, David C. 2014. “‘From Your First Cigarette to Your Last Dyin’ Day’: The Patterning of Gang Membership in the Life-Course.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 30 (2): 349–72. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-013–9206–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrooz, David C. 2016. “Gang Affiliation and Restrictive Housing in U.S. Prisons.” In Restrictive Housing in the U.S.: Issues, Challenges, and Future Directions, edited by Garcia, Marie, 117–64. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
Pyrooz, David C., and Decker, Scott H.. 2011. “Motives and Methods for Leaving the Gang: Understanding the Process of Gang Desistance.” Journal of Criminal Justice 39 (5): 417–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2011.07.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrooz, David C., Decker, Scott H., and Fleisher, Mark S.. 2011. “From the Street to the Prison, from the Prison to the Street: Understanding and Responding to Prison Gangs.” Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research 3 (1): 1224. https://doi.org/10.5042/jacpr.2011.0018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrooz, David C., Decker, Scott H., and Owens, Emily. 2018. “Does Administrative and Survey Data Tell the Same Story in Prisons? A Multi-Trait, Multi-Method Study with Application to Gangs.” Working Paper. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado Boulder, Institute of Behavioral Science.Google Scholar
Pyrooz, David C., Fox, Andrew M., Katz, Charles M., and Decker, Scott H.. 2012. “Gang Organization, Offending, and Victimization: A Cross-National Analysis.” In Youth Gangs in International Perspective, edited by Esbensen, Finn-Aage and Maxson, Cheryl L., 85105. New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrooz, David C., Gartner, Nancy, and Smith, Molly. 2017. “Consequences of Incarceration for Gang Membership: A Longitudinal Study of Serious Offenders in Philadelphia and Phoenix.” Criminology 55 (2): 273306. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745–9125.12135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrooz, David C., LaFree, Gary, Decker, Scott H., and James, Patrick A.. 2018. “Cut from the Same Cloth? A Comparative Study of Domestic Extremists and Gang Members in the United States.” Justice Quarterly 35 (1): 132. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2017.1311357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrooz, David C., McGloin, Jean Marie, and Decker, Scott H.. 2017. “Parenthood as a Turning Point in the Life Course for Male and Female Gang Members: A Study of within-Individual Changes in Gang Membership and Criminal Behavior.” Criminology 55 (4). https://doi.org/10.1111/1745–9125.12162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrooz, David C., and Mitchell, Meghan M.. 2015. “Little Gang Research, Big Gang Research.” In The Handbook of Gangs, edited by Decker, Scott H. and Pyrooz, David C., 2858. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrooz, David C., and Mitchell, Meghan M. 2018. “The use of restrictive housing on gang and non-gang affiliated inmates in U.S. prisons: Findings from a national survey of correctional agencies.” Justice Quarterly, 1–40.CrossRef
Pyrooz, David C., and Mitchell, Meghan M. 2019. “The Hardest Time: Gang Members in Total Institutions.” In Handbook on the Consequences of Sentencing and Punishment Decisions, edited by Huebner, Beth M. and Frost, Natasha A., 3: 361–78. ASC Division on Corrections & Sentences Handbook Series. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Pyrooz, David C., Jr. Moule, Richard K., and Decker, Scott H.. 2014. “The Contribution of Gang Membership to the Victim–Offender Overlap.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 51 (3): 315–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrooz, David C., and Sweeten, Gary. 2015. “Gang Membership between Ages 5 and 17 Years in the United States.” Journal of Adolescent Health 56 (4): 414–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.11.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrooz, David C., Sweeten, Gary, and Piquero, Alex R.. 2013. “Continuity and Change in Gang Membership and Gang Embeddedness.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 50 (2): 239–71. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427811434830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyrooz, David C., Turanovic, Jillian J., Decker, Scott H., and Wu, Jun. 2016. “Taking Stock of the Relationship between Gang Membership and Offending: A Meta-Analysis.” Criminal Justice & Behavior 43 (3): 365–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia, and Skrondal, Anders. 2008. Multilevel and Longitudinal Modeling Using Stata. College Station, TX: STATA Press.Google Scholar
Ralph, Paige H., Hunter, Robert J., Marquart, James W., Cuvelier, Steven J., and Merianos, Dorothy. 1996. “Exploring the Differences between Gang and Non-Gang Prisoners.” In Gangs in America, edited by Ronald Huff, C., 2nd ed., 123–36. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Ralph, Paige H., and Marquart, James W.. 1991. “Gang Violence in Texas Prisons.” The Prison Journal 71 (2): 3849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raudenbush, Stephen W., and Bryk, Anthony S.. 2002. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. Vol. 1. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Reid, Shannon E., and Listwan, Shelley Johnson. 2018. “Managing the Threat of Violence: Coping Strategies among Juvenile Inmates.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 33 (8): 1306–26. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515615143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reisig, Michael D., and Mesko, Gorazd. 2009. “Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and Prisoner Misconduct.” Psychology, Crime & Law 15 (1): 4159. https://doi.org/10.1080/10683160802089768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reiter, Keramet. 2012. “Parole, Snitch, or Die: California’s Supermax Prisons and Prisoners, 1997–2007.” Punishment & Society 14 (5): 530–63. https://doi.org/10.1177/1462474512464007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reiter, Keramet 2014. “The Pelican Bay Hunger Strike: Resistance within the Structural Constraints of a US Supermax Prison.” South Atlantic Quarterly 113 (3): 579611. https://doi.org/10.1215/00382876–2692191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reiter, Keramet A. 2016. 23/7: Pelican Bay Prison and the Rise of Long-Term Solitary. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Rogers, Everett M. 2010. Diffusion of Innovations. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
Roman, Caterina G., Decker, Scott H., and Pyrooz, David C.. 2017. “Leveraging the Pushes and Pulls of Gang Disengagement to Improve Gang Intervention: Findings from Three Multi-Site Studies and a Review of Relevant Gang Programs.” Journal of Crime and Justice 40 (3): 316–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg, Morris. 1965. Society and Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roth, M. Garrett, and Skarbek, David. 2014. “Prison Gangs and the Community Responsibility System.” Review of Behavioral Economics 1 (3): 223–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothman, David J. 2002. The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Rozycki Lozano, Alicia T., Morgan, Robert D., Murray, Danielle D., and Varghese, Femina. 2011. “Prison Tattoos as a Reflection of the Criminal Lifestyle.” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 55 (4): 509–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruddell, Rick, Decker, Scott H., and Egley, Arlen. 2006. “Gang Interventions in Jails: A National Analysis.” Criminal Justice Review 31 (1): 3346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruddell, Rick, and Gottschall, Shannon. 2011. “Are All Gangs Equal Security Risks? An Investigation of Gang Types and Prison Misconduct.” American Journal of Criminal Justice 36 (3): 265–79. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12103-011-9108-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rufino, Katrina A., Fox, Kathleen A., and Kercher, Glen A.. 2012. “Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Prison Inmates.” American Journal of Criminal Justice 37: 321–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sampson, Robert J., Raudenbush, Stephen W., and Earls, Felton. 1997. “Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy.” Science 277 (5328): 918–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaefer, David R., Bouchard, Martin, Young, Jacob T. N., and Kreager, Derek A.. 2017. “Friends in Locked Places: An Investigation of Prison Inmate Network Structure.” Social Networks: Crime and Networks special edition, 51 (October): 88103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2016.12.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schelling, Thomas C. 1967. “Economics and Criminal Enterprise.” The Public Interest 7: 61.Google Scholar
Schiller, Dane. 2016. “Aryan Brotherhood in ‘Chaos’ after Federal Takedown.” Houston Chronicle, August 7. www.houstonchronicle.com/news/houston-texas/houston/article/Aryan-Brotherhood-in-chaos-after-federal-9127170.php.
Schubert, Carol A., Mulvey, Edward P., Steinberg, Laurence, Cauffman, Elizabeth, Losoya, Sandra H., Hecker, Thomas, Chassin, Laurie, and Knight, George P.. 2004. “Operational Lessons from the Pathways to Desistance Project.” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 2 (3): 237–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204004265875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, Daniel W., and Maxson, Cheryl Lee. 2016. “Gang Organization and Violence in Youth Correctional Facilities.” Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice 2 (2). www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/JCRPP-03–2015-0004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, Greg. 2004. “‘It’s a Sucker’s Outfit’: How Urban Gangs Enable and Impede the Reintegration of Ex-Convicts.” Ethnography 5 (1): 107–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, Terri-Lynne, and Ruddell, Rick. 2011. “Canadian Female Gang Inmates: Risk, Needs, and the Potential for Prison Rehabilitation.” Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 50 (6): 305–26. https://doi.org/10.1080/10509674.2011.583717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharkey, Patrick T., Tirado-Strayer, Nicole, Papachristos, Andrew V., and Raver, C. Cybele. 2012. “The Effect of Local Violence on Children’s Attention and Impulse Control.” American Journal of Public Health 102 (12): 2287–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shelden, Randall G. 1991. “A Comparison of Gang Members and Non-Gang Members in a Prison Setting.” The Prison Journal 71 (2): 5060. https://doi.org/10.1177/003288559107100206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Short, James F. 1974. “Youth Gangs and Society: Micro- and Macrosociological Processes.” The Sociological Quarterly 15 (1): 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Short, James F. 1985. “The Level of Explanation Problem in Criminology.” In Theoretical Methods in Criminology, edited by Meier, Robert F., 5172. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Short, James F. 1996. Gangs and Adolescent Violence. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence. www.colorado.edu/UCB/Research/cspv/publications/papers/CSPV-004.pdf.Google Scholar
Short, James F. 1998. “The Level of Explanation Problem Revisited – the American Society of Criminology 1997 Presidential Address.” Criminology 36 (1): 336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Short., James F., and Strodtbeck, Fred L.. 1965. Group Process and Gang Delinquency. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Simi, Pete, Blee, Kathleen, DeMichele, Matthew, and Windisch, Steven. 2017. “Addicted to Hate: Identity Residual among Former White Supremacists.” American Sociological Review, August. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122417728719.CrossRef
Simon, Thomas R., Ritter, Nancy M., and Mahendra, Reshma R.. 2013. Changing Course: Preventing Gang Membership. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
Skarbek, David. 2011. “Governance and Prison Gangs.” American Political Science Review 105 (4): 702–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skarbek, David 2014. The Social Order of the Underworld: How Prison Gangs Govern the American Penal System. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sparks, Richard, Bottoms, Anthony E., and Hay, Will. 1996. Prisons and the Problem of Order. Oxford: Clarendon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spergel, Irving A. 1964. Racketville, Slumtown, Haulbug. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Spergel, Irving A., and Curry, G. David. 1993. “The National Youth Gang Survey: A Research and Development Process.” In The Gang Intervention Handbook, edited by Goldstein, Arnold P. and Huff, C. Ronald, 359400. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
Spindler, Andrea, and Bouchard, Martin. 2011. “Structure or Behavior? Revisiting Gang Typologies.” International Criminal Justice Review 21 (3): 263–82. https://doi.org/10.1177/1057567711419046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steiner, Benjamin, Butler, H. Daniel, and Ellison, Jared M.. 2014. “Causes and Correlates of Prison Inmate Misconduct: A Systematic Review of the Evidence.” Journal of Criminal Justice 42 (6): 462–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2014.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steiner, Benjamin, and Wooldredge, John. 2014. “Comparing Self-Report to Official Measures of Inmate Misconduct.” Justice Quarterly 31 (6): 10741101. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2012.723031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steiner, Benjamin, and Wooldredge, John 2018. “Prison Officer Legitimacy, Their Exercise of Power, and Inmate Rule Breaking.” Criminology 56 (4).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stewart, Eric A., Schreck, Christopher J., and Simons, Ronald L.. 2006. “‘I Ain’t Gonna Let No One Disrespect Me’: Does the Code of the Street Reduce or Increase Violent Victimization among African American Adolescents?” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 43 (4): 427–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stone, Sandra S. 1999. “Risk Factors Associated with Gang Joining among Youth.” Journal of Gang Research 6 (2): 118.Google Scholar
Surowiecki, James. 2005. The Wisdom of Crowds. New York, NY: Anchor.Google Scholar
Sweeten, Gary. 2012. “Scaling Criminal Offending.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 28 (3): 533–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sweeten, Gary, Pyrooz, David C., and Piquero, Alex R.. 2013. “Disengaging from Gangs and Desistance from Crime.” Justice Quarterly 30 (3): 469500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sykes, Gresham M. 1958. The Society of Captives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Sykes, Gresham M., and Messinger, Sheldon L.. 1960. “The Inmate Social System.” In Theoretical Studies in Social Organization of the Prison, edited by Cloward, Richard A., Cressey, Donald R., Grosser, George H., McCleery, Richard, Ohlin, Lloyd E., and Sykes, Gresham M., 519. New York, NY: Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
Tachiki, Scott N. 1995. “Indeterminate Sentences in Supermax Prisons Based upon Alleged Gang Affiliations: A Reexamination of Procedural Protection and a Proposal for Greater Procedural Requirements.” California Law Review 83 (4): 1115–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tangney, June P., Baumeister, Roy F., and Boone, Angie Luzio. 2004. “High Self-Control Predicts Good Adjustment, Less Pathology, Better Grades, and Interpersonal Success.” Journal of Personality 72 (2): 271324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tapia, Mike. 2013. “Texas Latino Gangs and Large Urban Jails: Intergenerational Conflicts and Issues in Management.” Journal of Crime and Justice 37 (2): 256–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/0735648X.2013.768179.Google Scholar
Tapia, Mike, Sparks, Corey S., and Mitchell Miller, J.. 2014. “Texas Latino Prison Gangs: An Exploration of Generational Shift and Rebellion.” The Prison Journal 94 (2): 159–79. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032885514524694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, Carl S. 1990. Dangerous Society. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
Taylor, Terrance J., Freng, Adrienne, Esbensen, Finn-Aage, and Peterson, Dana. 2008. “Youth Gang Membership and Serious Violent Victimization: The Importance of Lifestyles and Routine Activities.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 23 (10): 1441–64. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260508314306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Texas Department of Criminal Justice. 2007. “Security Threat Groups ‘on the Inside’.” August. www.tdcj.state.tx.us/documents/cid/CID_STGMO_FAQ.pdf.
Texas Department of Criminal Justice 2014. “Administrative Segregation.” Huntsville, TX: Texas Department of Criminal Justice. https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/2089812/texas-adseg-programming.pdf.
Texas Department of Criminal Justice 2017. “Unit Directory.” www.tdcj.state.tx.us/unit_directory/index.html.
Texas Department of Public Safety. 2015. “Texas Gang Threat Assessment: A State Intelligence Estimate.” Huntsville, TX: Texas Joint Crime Information Center, Intelligence & Counterterrorism Division.
Texas State Historical Association. 2017. “Texas Prison Rodeo.” https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/xxt01.
Thaler, Richard H., and Sunstein, Cass R.. 2008. Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Thomas, Charles W., Petersen, David M., and Zingraff, Rhonda M.. 1978. “Structural and Social Psychological Correlates of Prisonization.” Criminology 16 (3): 383–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, Heather Ann. 2017. Blood in the Water: The Attica Prison Uprising of 1971 and Its Legacy. New York, NY: Vintage.Google Scholar
Thompson, Heather Ann. 2018. “How a South Carolina Prison Riot Really Went Down.” The New York Times, May 1, sec. Opinion. www.nytimes.com/2018/04/28/opinion/how-a-south-carolina-prison-riot-really-went-down.html.
Thornberry, Terence P., Kearley, Brook, Gottfredson, Denise C., Slothower, Molly P., Devlin, Deanna N., and Fader, Jamie J.. 2018. “Reducing Crime among Youth at Risk for Gang Involvement.” Criminology & Public Policy 17 (4): 953–89. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9133.12395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thornberry, Terence P., and Krohn, Marvin D.. 2000. “The Self-Report Method for Measuring Delinquency and Crime.” Criminal Justice 4 (1): 3383.Google Scholar
Thornberry, Terence P., Krohn, Marvin D., Lizotte, Alan J., and Deborah, Chard-Wierschem. 1993. “The Role of Juvenile Gangs in Facilitating Delinquent Behavior.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 30 (1): 5587. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427893030001005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thornberry, Terence P., Krohn, Marvin D., Lizotte, Alan J., Smith, Carolyn A., and Tobin, Kimberly. 2003. Gangs and Delinquency in Developmental Perspective. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Thrasher, Frederic M. 1927. The Gang: A Study of 1,313 Gangs in Chicago. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Toch, Hans. 2007. “Sequestering Gang Members, Burning Witches, and Subverting Due Process.” Criminal Justice and Behavior 34: 274–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toman, Elisa L. 2017. “The Victim–Offender Overlap behind Bars: Linking Prison Misconduct and Victimization.” Justice Quarterly: 133. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2017.1402072.CrossRef
Trammell, Rebecca. 2012. Enforcing the Convict Code: Violence and Prison Culture. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Trulson, Chad R., and Marquart, James W.. 2010. First Available Cell: Desegregation of the Texas Prison System. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Trulson, Chad R., Marquart, James W., and Kawucha, Soraya K.. 2006. “Gang Suppression.” Corrections Today 68 (May): 2631.Google Scholar
Tyler, Tom R., and Jackson, Jonathan. 2014. “Popular Legitimacy and the Exercise of Legal Authority: Motivating Compliance, Cooperation, and Engagement.” Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 20 (1): 7895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Useem, Bert. 1985. “Disorganization and the New Mexico Prison Riot of 1980.” American Sociological Review 50 (5): 677–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Useem, Bert, and Piehl, Anne Morrison. 2008. Prison State: The Challenge of Mass Incarceration. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Valdez, Avelardo. 2003. “Toward a Typology of Contemporary Mexican American Youth Gangs.” In Gangs and Society: Alternative Perspectives, edited by Kontos, Louis, Brotherton, David C., and Barrios, Luis, 1240. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Van Gemert, Frank, and Fleisher, Mark S.. 2005. “In the Grip of the Group.” In European Street Gangs and Troublesome Youth Groups, edited by Decker, Scott H. and Weerman, Frank M., 1130. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
Varano, Sean P., Huebner, Beth M., and Bynum, Timothy S.. 2011. “Correlates and Consequences of Pre-Incarceration Gang Involvement among Incarcerated Youthful Felons.” Journal of Criminal Justice 39 (1): 30–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vasquez, Eduardo A., Wenborne, Lisa, Peers, Madeline, Alleyne, Emma, and Ellis, Kirsty. 2015. “Any of Them Will Do: In-Group Identification, Out-Group Entitativity, and Gang Membership as Predictors of Group-Based Retribution.” Aggressive Behavior 41 (3): 242–52. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Venkatesh, Sudhir Alladi, and Levitt, Steven D.. 2000. “‘Are We a Family or a Business?’ History and Disjuncture in the Urban American Street Gang.” Theory and Society 29 (4): 427–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vigil, Daryl A. 2006. “Classification and Security Threat Group Management.” Corrections Today 68 (2): 32–4.Google Scholar
Vigil, J. Diego. 1988. Barrio Gangs: Street Life and Identity in Southern California. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
von Lampe, Klaus. 2016. “The Ties That Bind: A Taxonomy of Associational Criminal Structures.” In Illegal Entrepreneurship, Organized Crime and Social Control, edited by Antonopoulos, Georgios A., 1935. Studies of Organized Crime 14. New York, NY: Springer. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978–3-319–31608-6_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wacquant, Loic. 2001. “Deadly Symbiosis: When Ghetto and Prison Meet and Mesh.” Punishment & Society 3 (1): 95133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wacquant, Loic 2002. “The Curious Eclipse of Prison Ethnography in the Age of Mass Incarceration.” Ethnography 3 (4): 371–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wacquant, Loic 2009. Prisons of Poverty. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Ward, T. W. 2012. Gangsters without Borders: An Ethnography of a Salvadoran Street Gang. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Watkins, Adam M., and Melde, Chris. 2016. “Bad Medicine: The Relationship between Gang Membership, Depression, Self-Esteem, and Suicidal Behavior.” Criminal Justice and Behavior, April. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854816631797.CrossRef
Webb, Vincent J., Katz, Charles M., and Decker, Scott H.. 2006. “Assessing the Validity of Self-Reports by Gang Members: Results from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program.” Crime & Delinquency 52 (2): 232–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weerman, Frank M. 2003. “Co‐offending as Social Exchange: Explaining Characteristics of Co‐offending.” British Journal of Criminology 43 (2): 398416. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/43.2.398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weerman, Frank M., Lovegrove, Peter J., and Thornberry, Terence. 2015. “Gang Membership Transitions and Its Consequences: Exploring Changes Related to Joining and Leaving Gangs in Two Countries.” European Journal of Criminology 12 (1): 7091. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370814539070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wells, James B., Minor, Kevin I., Angel, Earl, and Carter, Lisa. 2002. A Study of Gangs and Security Threat Groups in America’s Adult Prisons and Jails. Indianapolis, IN: National Major Gang Task Force.Google Scholar
Western, Bruce. 2018. Homeward: Life in the Year after Prison. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winfree, L. Thomas, and Freng, Adrienne. 2015. “Gangs and Social Learning Theory: What We Know, What We Need to Know, and Why It Matters.” In The Handbook of Gangs, edited by Decker, Scott H. and Pyrooz, David C., 118–35. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Winterdyk, John, and Ruddell, Rick. 2010. “Managing Prison Gangs: Results from a Survey of U.S. Prison Systems.” Journal of Criminal Justice 38 (4): 730–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.04.047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wood, Jane, and Adler, Joanna. 2001. “Gang Activity in English Prisons: The Staff Perspective.” Psychology, Crime & Law 7 (1–4): 167–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/10683160108401793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wood, Jane L., Alleyne, Emma, Mozova, Katarina, and James, Mark. 2014. “Predicting Involvement in Prison Gang Activity: Street Gang Membership, Social and Psychological Factors.” Law and Human Behavior 38 (3): 203–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wooldredge, John D. 1998. “Inmate Lifestyles and Opportunities for Victimization.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 35 (4): 480502. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427898035004006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wooldredge, John, and Steiner, Benjamin. 2012. “Race Group Differences in Prison Victimization Experiences.” Journal of Criminal Justice, The Prison Experience, 40 (5): 358–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2012.06.011.Google Scholar
Wooldredge, John, and Steiner, Benjamin 2014. “A Bi-level Framework for Understanding Prisoner Victimization.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 30 (1): 141–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-013–9197–y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Worrall, John L., and Morris, Robert G.. 2012. “Prison Gang Integration and Inmate Violence.” Journal of Criminal Justice 40 (5): 425–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wu, Jun, and Pyrooz, David C.. 2015. “Uncovering the Pathways between Gang Membership and Violent Victimization.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, October, 129. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-015–9266–5.CrossRef