Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-6d856f89d9-nr6nt Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-16T08:07:46.588Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

12 - Sociality in Fishes

from Part II - Vertebrates

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 April 2017

Dustin R. Rubenstein
Columbia University, New York
Patrick Abbot
Vanderbilt University, Tennessee
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2017

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Allen, G. R. (1972) The Anemonefishes: Their Classification and Biology. 2nd ed. Neptune City: T.F.H. PublicationsGoogle Scholar
Ang, T. Z. & Manica, A. (2010a) Aggression, segregation and stability in a domiance hierarchy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 277, 13371343.Google Scholar
Ang, T. Z. & Manica, A. (2010b) Unavoidable limits on group size in a body size-based linear hierarchy. Behavioral Ecology, 21, 819825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ang, T. Z. & Manica, A. (2011) Effect of the presence of subordinates on dominant female behaviour and fitness in hierarchies of the dwarf angelfish Centropyge bicolor. Ethology, 117, 11111119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arnold, K. E. & Owens, I. P. F. (1998) Cooperative breeding in birds: A comparative test of the life history hypothesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 265, 739745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arvelund, M., McCormick, M. I., Fautin, D. G., & Bildsoe, M. (1999) Host recognition and possible imprinting in the anemonefish Amphprion melanopuls (Pisces: Pomacentridae). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 188, 207218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Asoh, K. (2003) Gonadal development and infrequent sex change in a population of the humbug damselfish, Dascyllus aruanus, in continuous coral-cover habitat. Marine Biology, 142, 12071218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Awata, S., Munehara, H., & Kohda, M. (2005) Social system and reproduction of helpers in a cooperatively breeding cichlid fish (Julidochromis ornatus) in Lake Tanganyika: Field observations and parentage analyses. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 58, 506516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balshine, S. & Buston, P. M. (2008) Cooperative behaviour in fishes. In: Magnhagen, C., Braithwaite, V.A., Forsgren, E., & Kapoor, B.G. (eds.) Fish Behaviour Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, pp. 437484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balshine, S., Leach, B., Neat, F., Reid, H., Taborsky, M., et al. (2001) Correlates of group size in a cooperatively breeding cichlid fish. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 50, 134140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balshine-Earn, S., Neat, F. C., Reid, H., & Taborsky, M. (1998) Paying to stay or paying to breed? Field evidence for direct benefits of helping behavior in a cooperatively breeding fish. Behavioral Ecology, 9, 432438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baylis, J. R. (1974) The behavior and ecology of Herotilapia multispinosa (Teleostei, Cichlidae). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 34, 115146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ben-Tzvi, O., Kiflawi, M., Polak, O., & Abelson, A. (2009) The effect of adult aggression on habitat selection by settlers of two coral-dwelling damselfishes. PLoS ONE, 4, e5511.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bergmüller, R., Heg, D., & Taborsky, M. (2005) Helpers in a cooperatively breeding cichlid stay and pay or disperse and breed, depending on ecological constraints. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 272, 325331.Google ScholarPubMed
Bergmüller, R. & Taborsky, M. (2007) Adaptive behavioural syndromes due to strategic niche specialization. BMC Ecology, 7, 12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernardi, G., Beldade, R., Holbrook, S. J., & Schmitt, R. J. (2012) Full-sibs in cohorts of newly settled coral reef fishes. PLoS ONE, 7, e44953.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Biedermann, P. H. (2014) Evolution of cooperation in ambrosia beetles. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 19, 191201.Google Scholar
Bisazza, A., Marconato, A., & Marin, G. (1989) Male competition and female choice in Padogobius martensi (Pisces: Gobiidae). Animal Behaviour, 38, 406413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Booth, D. J. (1992) Larval settlement patterns and preferences by domino damselfish Dascyllus albisella Gill. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 155, 85104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bourke, A. F. G. (2011) Principles of Social Evolution. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breder, C. M. & Rosen, D. E. (1966) Modes of Reproduction in Fishes. Garden City, NY: Natural History Press.Google Scholar
Brouwer, L., Heg, D., & Taborsky, M. (2005) Experimental evidence for helper effects in a cooperatively breeding cichlid. Behavioral Ecology, 16, 667673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruintjes, R. & Taborsky, M. (2008) Helpers in a cooperative breeder pay a high price to stay: Effects of demand, helper size and sex. Animal Behaviour, 75, 18431850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruintjes, R. & Taborsky, M. (2011) Size-dependent task specialization in a cooperative cichlid in response to experimental variation of demand. Animal Behaviour, 81, 387394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruintjes, R., Hekman, R., & Taborsky, M. (2010) Experimental global food reduction raises resource acquisition costs of brood care helpers and reduces their helping effort. Functional Ecology, 24, 10541063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bshary, R. & Grutter, A. S. (2006) Image scoring and cooperation in a cleaner fish mutualism. Nature, 441, 975978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bshary, R., Hohner, A., Ait-el-Djoudi, K., & Fricke, H. (2006) Interspecific communicative and coordinated hunting between groupers and giant moray eels in the Red Sea. PLoS Biology, 4, 23932398.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buechler, K. (2005) An evaluation of the geographic variation in the life history and behaviour of anemonefishes: A common garden approach. Ph.D. Thesis, James Cook University, Australia.Google Scholar
Burchard, J. E. Jr. (1965) Family structure in the dwarf cichlid Apistogramma trifasciatum Eigenmann and Kennedy. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 22, 150162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burgerhout, E., Tudorache, C., Brittijn, S. A., Palstra, A. P., Dirks, R. P., et al. (2013) Schooling reduces energy consumption in swimming male European eels, Anguilla anguilla L. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 448, 6671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buston, P. M. & Cant, M. A. (2006) A new perspective on size hierarchies in nature: Patterns causes and consequences. Oecologia, 149, 362372.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buston, P. M. & Elith, J. (2011) Determinants of reproductive success in dominant pairs of clownfish: A boosted regression tree analysis. Journal of Animal Ecology, 80, 528538.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buston, P. M. & García, M. B. (2007) An extraordinary life span estimate for the clown anemonefish. Journal of Fish Biology, 70, 17101719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buston, P. M., Fauvelot, C., Wong, M. Y. L., & Planes, S. (2009) Genetic relatedness in groups of humbug damselfish Dascyllus aruanus: Small, similarly-sized individuals may be close kin. Molecular Ecology, 18, 47074715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caley, M. J., Carr, M. H., Hixon, M. A., Hughes, T. P., Jones, G. P., et al. (1996) Recruitment and the local dynamics of open marine populations. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 27, 477500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carey, F. G. & Lawson, K. D. (1973) Temperature regulation in free-swimming bluefin tuna. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 44, 375392.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chervet, N., Zöttl, M., Schurch, R., Taborsky, M., & Heg, D. (2011) Repeatability and heritability of behavioural types in a social cichlid. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 2011, 321729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Choat, J. H. & Axe, L. M. (1996) Growth and longevity in acanthurid fishes; An analysis of otolith increments. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 134, 1526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clifton, K. E. (1990). The costs and benefits of territory sharing for the Caribbean coral reef fish, Scarus iserti. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 26, 139147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, K. S. (1990) Patterns of gonad structure in hermaphroditic gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes, 28, 125142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, K. S. (2003) Hermaphroditic characteristics of gonad morphology and inferences regarding reproductive biology in Caracanthus (Teleostei, Scorpaeniformes). Copeia, 2003, 6880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, K. S. & Hoese, D. F. (2001) Gonad morphology, colony demography and evidence for hermaphroditism in Gobiodon okinawae (Gobiidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes, 61, 161173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Constantz, G. D. (1979) Social dynamics and parental care in the tessellated darter (Pisces: Percidae). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, 131, 131138.Google Scholar
Coolen, I., van Bergen, Y., Day, R. L., & Laland, K. N. (2003) Species difference in adaptive use of public information in sticklebacks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 270, 24132419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cote, I. M. (2000) Evolution and ecology of cleaning symbioses in the sea. Oceanography and Marine Biology, 38, 311355.Google Scholar
Croft, D. P., James, R., Thomas, P. O. R., Hathaway, C., Mawdsley, D., et al. (2006) Social structure and co-operative interactions in a wild population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 59, 644650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Danchin, E., Giraldeau, L. A., Valone, T. J., & Wagner, R. H. (2004) Public information: From nosy neighbors to cultural evolution. Science, 305, 487491.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daniels, R. A. (1979) Nest guard replacement in the Antarctic fish Harpagifer bispinis: Possible altruistic behavior. Science, 205, 831833.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delcourt, J. & Poncin, P. (2012) Shoals and schools: Back to the heuristic definitions and quantitative references. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 22, 595619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Depczynski, M. & Belwood, D. R. (2006) Ectremes, plasticity and invariance in vertebrate life history traits: Insights from coral reef fishes. Ecology, 87, 31193127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Devlin, R. H. & Nagahama, Y. (2002) Sex determination and sex differentiation in fish: An overview of genetic, physiological, and environmental influences. Aquaculture, 208, 191364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dey, C. J., Reddon, A. R., O’Connor, C. M., & Balshine, S. (2013) Network structure is related to social conflict in a cooperatively breeding fish. Animal Behaviour, 85, 395402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diaz-Munoz, S. L., DuVal, E. H., Krakauer, A. H., & Lacey, E. A. (2014) Cooperating to compete: Altruism, sexual selection and causes of male reproductive cooperation. Animal Behaviour, 88, 6778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dierkes, P., Heg, D., Taborsky, M., Skubic, E., & Achmann, R. (2005) Genetic relatedness in groups is sex-specific and declines with age of helpers in a cooperatively breeding cichlid. Ecology Letters, 8, 968975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dierkes, P., Taborsky, M., & Achmann, R. (2008) Multiple paternity in the cooperatively breeding fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 62, 15811589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dixson, D. L. & Hay, M. E. (2012) Corals chemically cue mutualistic fishes to remove competing seaweeds. Science, 338, 804807.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duftner, N., Sefc, K. M., Koblmueller, S., Salzburger, W., Taborsky, M., et al. (2007) Parallel evolution of facial stripe patterns in the Neolamprologus brichardilpulcher species complex endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 45, 706715.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dugatkin, L. A. & Godin, J. G. J. (1992) Predator inspection, shoaling and foraging under predation hazard in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 34, 265276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emlen, S. T. (1984) Cooperative breeding in birds and mammals. In: Krebs, J. R. & Davies, N.B. (eds.) Behavioural Ecology. Oxford: Blackwell Science, pp. 305339Google Scholar
Fischer, S., Zöttl, M., Groenewoud, F., & Taborsky, B. (2014) Group-size-dependent punishment of idle subordinates in a cooperative breeder where helpers pay to stay. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 281, 20140184.Google Scholar
Fricke, H.W. (1980) Control of different mating systems in a coral reef fish by one environmental factor. Animal Behaviour, 28, 561569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fryer, G. & Iles, T. D. (1972) The Cichlid Fishes of the Great Lakes of Africa: Their Biology and Evolution. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.Google Scholar
Gashagaza, M. M. (1988) Feeding activity of a tanganyikan cichlid fish Lamprologus brichardi. African Study Monographs, 9, 19.Google Scholar
Grantner, A. & Taborsky, M. (1998) The metabolic rates associated with resting, and with the performance of agonistic, submissive and digging behaviours in the cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher (Pisces: Cichlidae). Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 168, 427433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Groenewoud, F., Frommen, J. G., Josi, D., Tanaka, H., Jungwirth, A., & Taborsky, M. (2016) Predation risk drives social complexity in cooperative breederes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 113, 41044109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamaguchi, Y., Sakai, Y., Takasu, F., & Shigesada, M. (2002) Modeling spawning strategy for sex change under social control in haremic angelfishes. Behavioral Ecology, 13, 7582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, I. M., Heg, D., & Bender, N. (2005) Size differences within a dominance hierarchy influence conflict and help in a cooperatively breeding cichlid. Behaviour, 142, 15911613.Google Scholar
Hamilton, I. M. & Ligocki, I. Y. (2012) The extended personality: Indirect effects of behavioural syndromes on the behaviour of others in a group living cichlid. Animal Behaviour, 84, 659664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, I. M. & Taborsky, M. (2005) Unrelated helpers will not fully compensate for costs imposed on breeders when they pay to stay. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 272, 445454.Google Scholar
Hamilton, W. D. (1964) The genetical evolution of social behaviour I & II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Handegard, N. O., Boswell, K. M., Ioannou, C. C., Leblanc, S. P., Tjostheim, D. B., et al. (2012) The dynamics of coordinated group hunting and collective information transfer among schooling prey. Current Biology, 22, 12131217.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hankinson, T. L. (1920) Report on the investigations of fish of the Galien River, Berrien County, Michigan. Occ.Pap.Mus.Zool.Univ.Mich., 89, 1014.Google Scholar
Hattori, A. (1991) Socially controlled growth and size-dependent sex change in the anemonefish Amphiprion frenatus in Okinawa, Japan. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 38, 165177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heg, D. (2010) Status-dependent and strategic growth adjustments in female cooperative cichlids. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 64, 13091316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heg, D. & Bachar, Z. (2006) Cooperative breeding in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Julidochromis ornatus. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 76, 265281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heg, D. & Hamilton, I. M. (2008) Tug-of-war over reproduction in a cooperatively breeding cichlid. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 62, 12491257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heg, D. & Taborsky, M. (2010) Helper response to experimentally manipulated predation risk in the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher. PLoS ONE, 5, e10784.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heg, D., Bachar, Z., Brouwer, L., & Taborsky, M. (2004a) Predation risk is an ecological constraint for helper dispersal in a cooperatively breeding cichlid. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 271, 23672374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heg, D., Bender, N., & Hamilton, I. (2004b) Strategic growth decisions in helper cichlids. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 271, S505-S508.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heg, D., Brouwer, L., Bachar, Z., & Taborsky, M. (2005a) Large group size yields group stability in the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher. Behaviour, 142, 16151641.Google Scholar
Heg, D., Bachar, Z., & Taborsky, M. (2005b) Cooperative breeding and group structure in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Neolamprologus savoryi. Ethology, 111, 10171043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heg, D., Bergmüller, R., Bonfils, D., Otti, O., Bachar, Z., et al. (2006) Cichlids do not adjust reproductive skew to the availability of independent breeding options. Behavioral Ecology, 17, 419429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heg, D., Heg-Bachar, Z., Brouwer, L., & Taborsky, M. (2008) Experimentally induced helper dispersal in colonially breeding cooperative cichlids. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 83, 191206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hellmann, J. K., Ligocki, I. Y., O’Connor, C. M., Reddon, A. R., Garvy, K. A., et al. (2015) Reproductive sharing in relation to group and colony-level attributes in a cooperative breeding fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 282, 20150954.Google Scholar
Henson, S. A. & Warner, R. R. (1997) Male and female alternative reproductive behaviours in fishes: A new approach using intersexual dynamics. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 28, 571592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herler, J., Munday, P. M., & Hernaman, V. (2011) Gobies on coral reefs. In: Patzner, R. A., Van Tassell, J. L., Kovačić, M., & Kapoor, B. G. (eds.). The Biology of Gobies. Channel Islands, U.K: Science Publishers, pp. 493529.Google Scholar
Hernamen, V. & Munday, P. L. (2007) Evolution of mating systems in coral reef gobies and constraints on mating system plasticity. Coral Reefs, 26, 585–95.Google Scholar
Holbrook, S. J., Forrester, G. E., Schmitt, R. J. (2000) Spatial patterns in abundance of a damselfish reflect availability of suitable habitat. Oecologia, 122, 109120CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ioannou, C., Guttal, V., & Couzin, I. (2012) Predatory fish select for coordinated collective motion in virtual prey. Science, 337, 12121215.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johansen, J., Vaknin, R., Steffensen, J., & Domenici, P. (2010) Kinematics and energetic benefits of schooling in the labriform fish, striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 420, 221229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, A. G., Östlund-Nilsson, S., & Avise, J. C. (1998) A microsatellite assessment of sneaked fertilizations and egg thievery in the fifteenspine stickleback. Evolution, 52, 848858.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, G. P., Planes, S., & Thorrold, S. R. (2005) Coral reef fish larvae settled close to home. Current Biology, 15, 13141318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jordan, L. A., Avolio, C., Herbert-Read, J. E., Krause, J., Rubenstein, D. I., et al. (2010) Group structure in a restricted entry system is mediated by both resident and joiner preferences. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 64, 10991106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jungwirth, A. & Taborsky, M. (2015) First- and second-order sociality determine survival and reproduction in cooperative cichlids. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 282: 20151971.Google ScholarPubMed
Jungwirth, A., Josi, D., Walker, J., & Taborsky, M. (2015a) Benefits of coloniality: Communal defense saves anti-predator effort in cooperative breeders. Functional Ecology, 29, 12181224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jungwirth, A., Walker, J., & Taborsky, M. (2015b) Prospecting precedes dispersal and increases survival chances in cooperatively breeding cichlids. Animal Behaviour, 106, 107114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kamel, S. J. & Grosberg, R. K. (2013) Kinship and the evolution of social behaviours in the sea. Biology Letters, 9, 20130454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kellogg, K. A., Markert, J. A., Stauffer, J. R., & Kocher, T. D. (1998) Intraspecific brood mixing and reduced polyandry in a maternal mouth-brooding cichlid. Behavioral Ecology, 9, 309312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D. & Dickinson, J. L. (eds.) (2016) Cooperative Breeding in Vertebrates: Studies in Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D., Pitelka, F. A., Carmen, W. J., Mumme, R. L., & Stanback, M. T. (1992) The evolution of delayed dispersal in cooperative breeders. Quarterly Review of Biology, 67, 111150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kohda, M., Heg, D., Makino, Y., Takeyama, T., Shibata, J. Y., et al. (2009) Living on the wedge: Female control of paternity in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 276, 42074214.Google Scholar
Kohler, U. (1998) Zur Struktur und Evolution des Sozialsystems von Neolamprologus multifasciatus (Cichlidae, Pisces), dem kleinsten Schneckenbuntbarsch des Tanganjikasees. Aachen: Shaker Verlag.Google Scholar
Komdeur, J. & Ekman, J. (2010) Adaptations and constraints in the evolution of delayed dispersal: Implications for cooperation. In: Szekely, T., Moore, A. J., & Komdeur, J. (eds.) Social Behaviour. Genes, Ecology and Evolution. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 306327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kraak, S. B. M. & Groothuis, T. G. G. (1994) Female preference for nests with eggs is based on the presence of the eggs themselves. Behaviour, 131, 189206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuwamura, T. (1997) The evolution of parental care and mating systems among Tanganyikan cichlids. In: Kawanabe, H., Hori, M., & Nagoshi, M. (eds.) Fish Communities in Lake Tanganyika. Kyoto: Kyoto Univ. Press, pp. 5786.Google Scholar
Kuwamura, T., Nakashima, Y., & Yogo, Y. (1994). Population dynamics of goby Paragobiodon echinocephalus and host coral Stylophora pistillata. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 103, 1723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuwamura, T., Suzuki, S., & Kadota, T. (2011) Reversed sex change by widowed males in polygynous and protogynous fishes: Female removal experiments in the field. Naturwissenschaften, 98, 10411048.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lassig, B. R. (1977) Field Observations on the reproductive behaviour of Paragobiodon spp. (Gobiidae) at Heron Island Great Barrier Reef. Marine Behaviour and Physiology, 3, 283293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Le Vin, A., Mable, B., & Arnold, K. (2010) Kin recognition via phenotype matching in a cooperatively breeding cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher. Animal Behaviour, 79, 11091114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Le Vin, A., Mable, B., Taborsky, M., Heg, D., & Arnold, K. (2011) Individual variation in helping in a cooperative breeder: relatedness versus behavioural type. Animal Behaviour, 82, 467477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leis, J. M. (1991) The pelagic phase of coral reef fishes: Larval biology of coral reef fishes. In: Sale, P. F. (ed). The Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs. San Diego: Academic Press, pp 183230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liberman, T., Genin, A., & Loya, Y. (1995) Effects on growth and reproduction of the coral Stylophora pistillata by the mutualistic damselfish Dascyllus marginatus. Marine Biology, 121, 741746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Limberger, D. (1983) Pairs and harems in a cichlifd fish, Lamprologus brichardi. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 62, 115144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maan, M. E. & Taborsky, M. (2008) Sexual conflict over breeding substrate causes female expulsion and offspring loss in a cichlid fish. Behavioural Ecology, 19, 302208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manabe, H., Ishimura, M., Shinomiya, A., & Sunobe, T. (2007) Field evidence for bi-directional sex change in the polygynous gobiid fish Trimma okinawae. Journal of Fish Biology, 70, 600609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, E. & Taborsky, M. (1997) Alternative male mating tactics in a cichlid, Pelvicachromis pulcher: A comparison of reproductive effort and success. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 41, 311319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKaye, K. R. & McKaye, N. M. (1977) Communal care and kidnapping of young by parental cichlids. Evolution, 31, 674681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKaye, K. R., Mughogho, D. E., & Lovullo, T. J. (1992) Formation of the selfish school. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 35, 213218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milinski, M., Kulling, D., & Kettler, R. (1990) Tit for tat: Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) “trusting” a cooperating partner. Behavioral Ecology, 1, 711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, J. S., Jutzeler, E., Heg, D., & Taborsky, M. (2009) Dominant members of cooperatively-breeding groups adjust their behaviour in response to the sexes of their subordinates. Behaviour, 146, 16651686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mizushima, N., Nakashima, Y., & Kuwamura, T. (2000) Semilunar spawning cycle of the humbug damselfish Dascyllus aruanus. Journal of Ethology, 18, 105108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moyer, J. T. (1986) Longevity of the anemonefish Amphiprion clarkia at Miyake-jima, Japan with notes on four other species. Copeia, 1986, 135139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Munday, P. L. (2001) Fitness consequences of habitat use and competition among coral-dwelling fishes. Oecologia, 128, 585593.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Munday, P. L., Buston, P. M., & Warner, R. R. (2006) Diversity and flexibility of sex-change strategies in animals. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 8995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nakashima, Y., Sakai, Y., Karino, K., & Kuwamura, T. (2000) Female–female spawning and sex change in a haremic coral-reef fish, Labroides dimidiatus. Zoological Science, 17, 967970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oliveira, R. F., Carvalho, N., Miranda, J., Goncalves, E. J., Grober, M., et al. (2002) The relationship between the presence of satellite males and nest-holders’ mating success in the Azorean rock-pool blenny Parablennius sanguinolentus parvicornis. Ethology, 108, 223235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Partridge, B. L., Johansson, J., & Kalish, J. (1983) The structure of schools of giant bluefin tuna in Cape Cod Bay. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 9, 253262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perrone, M. & Zaret, T. M. (1979) Parental care patterns of fishes. The American Naturalist, 113, 351361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pitcher, T. J. & Parrish, J. K. (1993) Functions of shoaling behaviour. In: Pitcher, T. J. (ed.) Behaviour of Teleost Fishes. London: Champman & Hall, pp. 363439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quiñones, A. E., van Doorn, S., Pen, I., Weissing, F. J., Taborsky, M. (2016) Negotiation and appeasement can be more effective drivers of sociality than kin selection. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 371, 20150089.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Randall, J. E. & Deelbeek, J. C. (2009) Comments on the extremes of longevity in fishes, with special reference to the Gobiidae. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 60, 447–44.Google Scholar
Reddon, A. R., Voisin, M. R., Menon, N., Marsh-Rollo, S. E., Wong, M. Y., et al. (2011) Rules of engagement for resource contests in a social fish. Animal Behaviour, 82, 9399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ribbink, A. J., Marsh, A. C., & Marsh, B. A. (1981) Nest-building and communal care of young by Tilapia rendalli Dumeril (Pisces, Cichlidae) in Lake Malawi. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 6, 219222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riebli, T., Taborsky, M., Chervet, N., Apolloni, N., Zuercher, Y., et al. (2012). Behavioural type, status and social context affect behaviour and resource allocation in cooperatively breeding cichlids. Animal Behaviour, 84, 925936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robertson, D. R. & Hoffman, S. G. (1977) The roles of female mate choice and predation in the mating systems of some tropical Labroid fishes. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 45, 298320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roopin, M., Thornhill, D. J., Santos, S. R., & Chadwick, N. E. (2011) Ammonia flux, physiological parameters, and Symbiodinium diversity in the anemonefish symbiosis on Red Sea coral reefs. Symbiosis, 53, 6374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ross, R. M. (1990) The evolution of sex-change mechanisms in fishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 29, 8193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruxton, G. D., Humphries, S., Morrell, L. J., & Wilkinson, D. M. (2014) Why is eusociality an almost exclusively terrestrial phenomenon? Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, 12481255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sadovy, Y. & Shapiro, D. (1987) Criteria for the diagnosis of hermaphroditism in fishes. Copeia, 1987, 136156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaedelin, F. C., van Dongen, W. F., & Wagner, R. H. (2013) Nonrandom brood mixing suggests adoption in a colonial cichlid. Behavioral Ecology, 24, 540546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schürch, R. & Heg, D. (2010) Life history and behavioural type in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher. Behavioral Ecology, 21, 588598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwarz, A. L. & Smith, C. L. (1990) Sex change in the dameselfish Dascyllus reticulatus (Richardson) (Perciformes: Pomacentridae). Bulletin of Marine Science, 46, 790798.Google Scholar
Sefc, K. M., Hermann, C. M., Taborsky, B., & Koblmueller, S. (2012) Brood mixing and reduced polyandry in a maternally mouthbrooding cichlid with elevated among-breeder relatedness. Molecular Ecology, 21, 28052815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skubic, E., Taborsky, M., McNamara, J. M., & Houston, A. I. (2004) When to parasitize? A dynamic optimization model of reproductive strategies in a cooperative breeder. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 227, 487501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solomon, N. G. & French, J. A. (1997) Cooperative Breeding in Mammals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Stewart, B. D. & Jones, G. P. (2001) Associations between the abundance of piscivorous fishes and their prey on coral reefs: Implications for pre-fish mortality. Marine Biology, 138, 383397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stiver, K. A. & Alonzo, S. H. (2013) Does the risk of sperm competition help explain cooperation between reproductive competitors? A study in the ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus). The American Naturalist, 181, 357368.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stiver, K. A., Dierkes, P., Taborsky, M., Gibbs, H. L., & Balshine, S. (2005) Relatedness and helping in fish: Examining the theoretical predictions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 272, 15931599.Google ScholarPubMed
Stiver, K., Fitzpatrick, J., Desjardins, J., Neff, B., Quinn, J., et al. (2008) The role of genetic relatedness among social mates in a cooperative breeder. Behavioral Ecology, 19, 816823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stiver, K., Fitzpatrick, J., Desjardins, J., & Balshine, S. (2009) Mixed parentage in Neolamprologus pulcher groups. Journal of Fish Biology, 74, 11291135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sunobe, T. (2000) Social structure, nest guarding and interspecific relationships of the cichlid fish Julidochromis marlieri in Lake Tanganyika. African Study Monographs, 21, 8389.Google Scholar
Sunobe, T. & Nakazono, A. (1999) Mating system and hermaphroditism in the gobiid fish, Priolepis cincta, at Kagoshima, Japan. Ichthyological Research, 46, 103105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swearer, S. E., Thorrold, S. R., Shima, J. S., Hellberg, M. E., Jones, G. P., et al. (2002) Evidence of self-recruitment in demersal marine populations. Bulletin of Marine Science, 70, 251272.Google Scholar
Sweatman, H. P. A. (1983) Influence of conspecifics on choice of settlement sites by larvae of two pomacentrid fishes (Dascyilus aruanus and D. reticulatus) on coral reefs. Marine Biology, 75, 225229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taborsky, B., Skubic, E., & Bruintjes, R. (2007) Mothers adjust egg size to helper number in a cooperatively breeding cichlid. Behavioral Ecology, 18, 652657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taborsky, M. (1984) Broodcare helpers in the cichlid fish Lamprologus brichardi – their costs and benefits. Animal Behaviour, 32, 12361252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taborsky, M. (1985) Breeder-helper conflict in a cichlid fish with broodcare helpers - an experimental analysis. Behaviour, 95, 4575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taborsky, M. (1987) Cooperative behaviour in fish: Coalitions, kin groups and reciprocity. In: Ito, Y., Brown, J. L. & Kikkawa, J. (eds.) Animal Societies: Theories and Facts. Tokyo: Japanese Science Society Press, pp. 229237.Google Scholar
Taborsky, M. (1994) Sneakers, satellites, and helpers: Parasitic and cooperative behaviour in fish reproduction. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 23, 1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taborsky, M. (1997) Bourgeois and parasitic tactics: Do we need collective, functional terms for alternative reproductive behaviours? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 41, 361362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taborsky, M. (1999) Conflict or cooperation: What determines optimal solutions to competition in fish reproduction? In: Oliveira, R., Almada, V. & Goncalves, E. (eds.) Behaviour and Conservation of Littoral Fishes. Lisboa: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, pp. 301349.Google Scholar
Taborsky, M. (2001) The evolution of parasitic and cooperative reproductive behaviours in fishes. Journal of Heredity, 92, 100110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taborsky, M. (2008) Alternative reproductive tactics in fish. In: Oliveira, R. F., Taborsky, M. & Brockmann, H. J. (eds.) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 251299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taborsky, M. (2009) Reproductive skew in cooperative fish groups: Virtue and limitations of alternative modeling approaches. In: Hager, R. & Jones, C. Reproductive Skew in Vertebrates: Proximate and Ultimate Causes. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 265304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taborsky, M. (2013) Social evolution: Reciprocity there is. Current Biology, 23, R486-R488.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taborsky, M. (2016) Cichlid fishes: A model for the integrative study of social behavior. In: Koenig, W. D. & Dickinson, J. L. (eds.) Cooperative Breeding in Vertebrates. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 272293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taborsky, M. & Grantner, A. (1998) Behavioural time-energy budgets of cooperatively breeding Neolamprologus pulcher (Pisces: Cichlidae). Animal Behaviour, 56, 13751382.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taborsky, M. & Limberger, D. (1981) Helpers in fish. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 8, 143145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taborsky, M. & Neat, F. (2010) Fertilization mode, sperm competition and cryptic female choice shape primary and secondary sexual characters in fish. In: Leonard, J. & Córdoba-Aguilar, A. (eds.) The Evolution of Primary Sexual Characters in Animals. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 379408.Google Scholar
Taborsky, M., Hert, E., Siemens, M., & Stoerig, P. (1986) Social behaviour of Lamprologus species: Functions and mechanisms. Annals of the Museum, Royal African Centre for Science, Zoology, 251, 711.Google Scholar
Taborsky, M., Hudde, B., & Wirtz, P. (1987) Reproductive behaviour and ecology of Symphodus (Crenilabrus) ocellatus, a European wrasse with four types of male behaviour. Behaviour, 102, 82118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taborsky, M., Frommen, J. G., & Riehl, C. (2016) Correlated pay-offs are key to cooperation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 371: 20150084.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tanaka, H. (2014) Social structure, dispersal and helping behaviour in the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus obscurus. Ph.D. Thesis, Osaka City University, Japan.Google Scholar
Tanaka, H., Heg, D., Takeshima, H., Takeyama, T., Awata, S., et al. (2015) Group composition, relatedness, and dispersal in the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus obscurus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 69, 169181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thorson, G. (1950) Reproductive and larval ecology of marine bottom invertebrates. Biological Reviews, 25, 145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thresher, R. E. (1985) Brood-directed parental aggression and early brood loss in the coral reef fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus (Pomacentridae). Animal Behaviour, 33, 897907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trivers, R. L. (1985) Social Evolution. Menlo Park, CA. (USA): Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Comp. Inc.Google Scholar
Tunstrom, K., Katz, Y., Ioannou, C. C., Huepe, C., Lutz, M. J., et al. (2013) Collective states, multistability and transitional behaviour in schooling fish. PLoS Computational Biology, 9, e1002915.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Rooij, J. M., de Jong, E., Vaandrager, F., & Videler, J. J. (1996) Resource and habitat sharing by the stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride, a Caribbean reef herbivore. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 47, 8191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Videler, J. J. (1993) Fish Swimming. London: Chapman & Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ward, J. A. & Wyman, R. A. (1977) Ethology and ecology of cichlid fishes of the genus Etroplus in Srilanka: Preliminary findings. Enviromnetal Biology of Fishes, 2, 137145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Warner, R. R. (1984) Mating behavior and hermaphroditism in coral reef fishes: The diverse forms of sexuality found among tropical marine fishes can be viewed as adaptations to their equally diverse mating systems. American Scientist, 72, 128136.Google Scholar
Weihs, D. (1973) Hydromechanics of fish schooling. Nature, 241, 290291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Werner, N. Y., Balshine, S., Leach, B., & Lotem, A. (2003) Helping opportunities and space segregation in cooperatively breeding cichlids. Behavioral Ecology, 14, 749756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whiteman, E. A. & Côté, I. M. (2004) Monogamy in marine fishes. Biological Reviews, 79, 351375.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, E. O. (1975) Sociobiology. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
Wisenden, B. D. (1999) Alloparental care in fishes. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 9, 4570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wisenden, B. D. & Keenleyside, M. H. A. (1992) Intraspecific brood adoption in convict cichlids: Mutual benefit. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 31/4, 263269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wisenden, B. D., Mammenga, E. A., Storseth, C. N., & Berglund, N. J. (2014) Odour tracking by young convict cichlids and a mechanism for alloparental brood amalgamation. Animal Behaviour, 93, 201206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wong, M. Y. L. (2010). Ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry promote group living in a social but non-cooperatively breeding fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, 277, 353358.Google Scholar
Wong, M. Y. L., Buston, P. M., Munday, P. L., & Jones, G. P. (2007) The threat of punishment enforces peaceful cooperation and stabilizes queues in a coral-reef fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 274, 10931099.Google Scholar
Wong, M. Y. L., Buston, P. M., Munday, P. L., & Jones, G. P. (2008a) Monogamy when there is potential for polygyny: Tests of multiple hypotheses in a group living fish. Behavioral Ecology, 19, 353361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wong, M. Y. L., Munday, P. L., Buston, P. M., & Jones, G. P. (2008b) Fasting or feasting in a fish social hierarchy. Current Biology, 18, R372–373.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wong, M. Y. L., Fauvelot, C., Planes, S., & Buston, P. M. (2012) Discrete and continuous reproductive tactics in a hermaphroditic society. Animal Behaviour, 84, 897906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yamagishi, S. & Kohda, M. (1996) Is the cichlid fish Julidochromis marlieri polyandrous? Ichthyological Research, 43, 469471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yanagisawa, Y. (1985) Parental strategy of the cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis, with particular reference to intraspecific brood “farming out”. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 12, 241249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yanagisawa, Y. & Ochi, H. (1986) Step-fathering in the anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii: A removal study. Animal Behaviour, 34, 17691780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zöttl, M., Frommen, J. G., & Taborsky, M. (2013a) Group size adjustment to ecological demand in a cooperative breeder. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 280, 20122772.Google Scholar
Zöttl, M., Heg, D., Chervet, N., & Taborsky, M. (2013b) Kinship reduces alloparental care in cooperative cichlids where helpers pay-to-stay. Nature Communications, 4, 1341.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zöttl, M., Fischer, S., & Taborsky, M. (2013c) Partial brood care compensation by female breeders in response to experimental manipulation of alloparental care. Animal Behaviour, 85, 14711478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zöttl, M., Chapuis, L., Freiburghaus, M., & Taborsky, M. (2013d) Strategic reduction of help before dispersal in a cooperative breeder. Biology Letters, 9, 20120878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats