Published online by Cambridge University Press: 09 January 2021
An 85-year-old woman with hypertension and hyperlipidemia presented with gradual and progressive cognitive impairment for more than 2 years, involving cognitive domains of memory, executive function, visuospatial and mood. She has short-term memory loss such as forgetting whether she has eaten or showered. She will also ask the same questions repeatedly. However, her long-term memory remains intact. She has forgotten how to cook and has recently burnt the pot while cooking on the stove. She is also unable to manage finances and often gives the wrong change while buying her usual groceries. She has lost her way a few times in places where she is familiar with. In addition, she started having mood swings, low mood, and poor sleep. Physical examination reveals mild bilateral bradykinesia, absence of postural or rest tremors, normal limb power, tone and tendon reflexes. She has lower limb apraxia and mild postural instability. Her Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was 16. While she scored 0 for delayed recall, she was able to recall all 3 objects with either category or lexical cueing.