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Part V - Popular Protest and Resistance

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 March 2020

Robert Antony
Guangzhou University
Stuart Carroll
University of York
Caroline Dodds Pennock
University of Sheffield
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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

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Bibliographic Essay

Any study of the early modern history of Vietnam must include Keith Taylor’s survey A History of the Vietnamese (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013). The value of this work lies in its ability to place rebellions and violence of the early modern period into a larger historical context. Another invaluable study is Tana’s, Li Nguyen Cochinchina: Southern Vietnam in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Ithaca, NY: Cornell SEAP, 1998), which focuses on the emergence of an independent state in the southern Vietnamese territories, and is important for contextualising the events that led up to the large-scale Tay Son uprising. The events of that uprising are covered in Dutton, George, The Tay Son Uprising: Society and Rebellion in Eighteenth-Century Vietnam (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2006).

Other important studies include Buu Lam’s, TruongIntervention versus Tribute in Sino-Vietnamese Relations, 1788-1790’, in Fairbank, John (ed.), The Chinese World Order (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968); and Dutton, George, Werner, Jayne and Whitmore, John K. (eds.), Sources of Vietnamese Tradition (New York: Columbia University Press, 2012), which includes military edicts, discussions of popular rebellion, and documents describing the context and course of the Tay Son uprising. For military technologies and strategies, see Dutton, George, ‘Burning Tiger, Flaming Dragon: Military Technology and Strategy in Pre-Modern Viet Nam’, Journal of East Asian Science, Technology, and Medicine 21 (2003).

The events of the earlier Mac struggles with their Le and Trinh rivals, as well as the Chinese dimension to this struggle, are examined in Baldanza, Katherine Ming China and Vietnam: Negotiating Borders in Early Modern Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016). On the role of Chinese pirates on the Sino-Vietnamese water frontier see Antony, Robert, ‘Violence and Predation on the Sino-Vietnamese Maritime Frontier, 1450-1850’, Asia Major, series 3, 27.2 (2014), 87114, and his ‘Maritime Violence and State Formation in Vietnam: Piracy and the Tay Son Rebellion, 1771–1802’, in Amirell, Stefan and Muller, Leos (eds.), Persistent Piracy: Maritime Violence and State-Formation in Global Historical Perspective (New York: Palgrave, 2014), pp. 113–30. Attention to violence reflected in the early modern Le legal codes is discussed in the three-volume, annotated translation, Hue, Nguyen Ngoc and Van Tai, Ta, The Le Code: Law in Traditional Vietnam (Columbus: Ohio University Press, 1987). On violence against Catholics see Cooke, Nola, ‘Strange Brew: Global, Regional, and Local Factors behind the 1698 Prohibition of Christian Practice in Cochinchina’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 39.3 (2008), which looks at the Catholic community in the Nguyen realm and the court’s attempt to suppress their faith.

Bibliographic Essay

Useful recent essays on the scholarly literature of piracy are Starkey, David J., ‘Voluntaries and Sea Robbers: A Review of the Academic Literature on Privateering, Corsairing, Buccaneering and Piracy’, Mariner’s Mirror 97.1 (2011), 127–47; and Connolly, Patrick and Antony, Robert, ‘“A Terrible Scourge”: Piracy, Coastal Defense, and the Historian’, in Sim, Teddy (ed.), Qi Jiguang and the Maritime Defence of China, (Singapore: Springer, 2017), pp. 4358.

For general approaches to early modern piracy see Anderson, J. L., ‘Piracy and World History: An Economic Perspective on Maritime Predation’, Journal of World History 6.2 (1995), 175–99; Gosse, Philip, The History of Piracy (London: Longmans, Green, 1932); and Pennell, C. R. (ed.), Bandits at Sea: A Pirates Reader (New York: New York University Press, 2001). On the relationships between piracy, laws and states see Kempe, Michael, ‘Even the Remotest Corners of the World: Globalized Piracy and International Law, 1500–1900’, Journal of Global History 5.3 (2010), 353–72; Thompson, Janice E., Mercenaries, Pirates, and Sovereigns: State-Building and Extraterritorial Violence in Early Modern Europe (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994); and Benton, Lauren, A Search for Sovereignty: Law and Geography in European Empires, 1400–1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).

For Mediterranean piracy see Bracewell, Catherine, The Uskoks of Senj: Piracy, Banditry, and Holy War in the Sixteenth-Century Adriatic (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011); Davis, Robert, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500–1800 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003); and Weiss, G. L., Captives and Corsairs: France and Slavery in the Early Modern Mediterranean (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011).

For Indian Ocean piracy see Ritchie, Robert, Captain Kidd and the War against the Pirates (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986); Davies, Charles, The Blood-Red Arab Flag: An Investigation into Qasimi Piracy, 1797–1820 (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1997); Prange, Sebastian R., ‘A Trade of No Dishonor: Piracy, Commerce, and Community in the Western Indian Ocean, Twelfth to Sixteenth Century’, American Historical Review 116.5 (2011), 1269–93; and Risso, Patricia, ‘Cross-Cultural Perceptions of Piracy: Maritime Violence in the Western Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf during a Long Eighteenth Century’, Journal of World History 12.2 (2001), 293319.

Studies of East Asian piracy include Kwan-Wai, So, Japanese Piracy in Ming China During the 16th Century (Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1975); Murray, Dian, Pirates of the South China Coast, 1790–1810 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1987); and Antony, Robert, Like Froth Floating on the Sea: The World of Pirates and Seafarers in Late Imperial South, China Research monograh (Berkeley: University of California, Institute of East Asian Studies, 2003). For South East Asia see the two studies by Warren, James: The Sulu Zone (Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1981) and Iranun and Balangingi (Singapore: Singapore University Press, 2002); and Jennifer L. Gaynor, Intertidal History in Island Southeast Asia: Submerged Genealogy and the Legacy of Coastal Capture (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2016).

Among the many studies on piracy in the Americas see Hanna, Mark, Pirate Nests and the Rise of the British Empire, 1570–1740 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015); Latimer, Jon, Buccaneers of the Caribbean: How Piracy Forged an Empire (Cambridge, M: Harvard University Press, 2009); McCarthy, Matthew, Privateering, Piracy and British Policy in Spanish America, 1810–1830 (Kingston upon Hull: University of Hull, 2013); Rediker, Marcus, Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2004); Lane, Kris, Pillaging the Empire: Global Piracy on the High Seas, 1500–1750 (New York: Routledge, 2015); and McDonald, Kevin, Pirates, Merchants, Settlers, and Slaves: Colonial America and the Indo-Atlantic World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2015).

Bibliographic Essay

In addition to the works cited in the footnotes to this chapter, general studies of early modern European collective violence include Bercé, Yves-Marie, Revolt and Revolution in Early Modern Europe: An Essay on the History of Political Violence (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1987); Te Brake, Wayne P., Shaping History: Ordinary People in European Politics, 1500–1700 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998); Goldstone, Jack A., Revolutions in the Early Modern World (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991); Neveux, Hugues, Les révoltes paysannes en Europe (xiv–xviie siècle) (Paris: Albin Michel, 1997); Parker, Geoffrey, Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013), which considers collective violence within the seventeenth-century crisis; Tilly, Charles, European Revolutions, 1492–1992 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993); and Zagorin, Perez, Rebels and Rulers, 1500–1660, 2 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982). Most scholarship on collective violence, however, is by historians working within their particular national perspectives.

General studies of English collective violence include Fletcher, Anthony and MacCulloch, Diarmaid, Tudor Rebellions, 5th edn (London: Pearson Longman, 2008); Stevenson, John, Popular Disturbances in England, 1700–1832, 2nd edn (London: Longman Publishing, 1992); Tilly, Charles, Popular Contention in Great Britain, 1758–1834 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995); and Wood, Andy, Riot, Rebellion and Popular Politics in Early Modern England (New York: Palgrave, 2002). On enclosure riots see Manning, Roger, Village Revolts: Social Protest and Popular Disturbances in England, 1509–1640 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998); Sharp, Buchanan, In Contempt of All Authority: Rural Artisans and Riots in the West of England, 1586–1660 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980); and Wood, Andy, The 1549 Rebellions and the Making of Early Modern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007). On food riots see Bohstedt, John, Politics of Provisions: Food Riots, Moral Economy and Market Transition in England, c. 1550–1850 (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010) and Randall, Adrian, Riotous Assemblies: Popular Protest in Hanoverian England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006). Underdown, David addressed protest during the Civil War in Revel, Riot and Rebellion: Popular Politics and Culture in England, 1603–1660 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985).

Study of the wave of peasant rebellions that engulfed France began with the work of the Soviet scholar Porshnev, Boris F., who, in Les soulèvements populaires en France de 1623 à 1648 (Paris: SEVPEN, 1963), interpreted these revolts in terms of class conflict and elicited a strongly anti-Marxist response from Mousnier, Roland, Peasant Uprisings in Seventeenth-Century France, Russia, and China, trans. Brian Pearce (New York: Harper & Row, 1970), and his students, including Bercé, Yves-Marie, Histoire des Croquants: étude des soulèvements populaires au XVIIe siècle dans le sud-ouest de la France, 2 vols. (Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1974); Foisil, Madeleine, La révolte des nu-pieds et les révoltes normandes de 1639 (Presses Universitaires de France, 1970); and Pillorget, René, Les mouvements insurrectionels de Provence entre 1596 et 1715 (Paris: Éditions A. Pedone, 1975). A recent addition to these regional studies is Aubert, Gauthier, Les révoltes du papier timbré, 1675: essai d’histoire événementielle (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2014). Urban disturbances are the subject of an important study by Beik, William, Urban Protest in Seventeenth-Century France: The Culture of Retribution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997). For religious violence see Crouzet, Denis, Les guerriers de Dieu: la violence au temps des troubles de religion, vers 1525–vers 1610, 2 vols. (Seyssel: Champ Vallon, 1990), and Gregory Hanlon, W., Let God Arise: The War and Rebellion of the Camisards (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014). Food riots are the focus of Bouton, Cynthia’s The Flour War: Gender, Class, and Communities in Late Ancien Régime French Society (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993) and Tilly, Louise’s ‘The Food Riot as a Form of Political Conflict in France’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History 2 (1971), 2357.

The Peasants’ War of 1525 dominates the history of Germany in our period, and the work of Peter Blickle remains key in its study, but also see his more general study of German unrest, Obedient Germans? A Rebuttal: A New View of German History, trans. Thomas A. Brady Jr (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1997). On the Fettmilch uprising in Frankfurt, see Friedrichs, Christopher R., ‘Politics or Pogrom? The Fettmilch Uprising in German and Jewish History’, Central European History 19.2 (1986), 186227.

On the revolts in the Spanish monarchy, the classic work on Naples is that of Villari, Rosario, The Revolt of Naples, trans. James Newell, 5th edn (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1993), but we also have Hugon, Alain, Naples insurgée, 1647–1648: de l’événement à la mémoire (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2011). On the Iberian peninsula, see Haliczer, Stephen, The Comuneros of Castile: The Forging of a Revolution, 1475–1521 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981) and Elliott, J. H., The Revolt of the Catalans: A Study in the Decline of Spain (1598–1640) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963).

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