Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-558cb97cc8-4xlcd Total loading time: 0.637 Render date: 2022-10-06T17:38:21.549Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": true, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

9 - Epidemiology and risk factors

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 July 2009

Bruce L. Miller
University of California, San Francisco
Bradley F. Boeve
Mayo Foundation, Minnesota
Get access



As prior chapters have discussed, dementia is a neurodegenerative syndrome that encompasses many different specific diseases. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for approximately 70% of dementia cases; vascular dementia (VaD) accounts for another 10–20%. To date, most epidemiologic research on dementia has examined prevalence, incidence and risk factors for either all-cause dementia or for AD. Therefore, in this chapter, we also will discuss primarily what is known about the epidemiology of all-cause dementia and AD, with reference to other specific dementias when data are available.

The impending public health crisis of dementia


The prevalence of all-cause dementia, as well as AD and VaD, increases with age. For AD alone, prevalence may be as high as 10% in adults over the age of 65 years and nearly 50% in adults over 85 (Evans et al., 1989). In 2000, there were approximately 4.5 million people in the USA with AD. It is estimated that this number will nearly triple to 13.2 million by 2050 (Hebert et al., 2003) (Fig. 9.1). This increase in the prevalence of AD over the next 50 years will primarily reflect increased life expectancy and the aging of adults who were born during the “baby boom” after World War II (1946–1964), who will make up an increasingly large proportion of our population.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abbott, R. D., White, L. R., Ross, G. al. (2004). Walking and dementia in physically capable elderly men. JAMA 292(12): 1447–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Adlard, P. A., Perreau, V. M., Pop, V. and Cotman, C. W. (2005). Voluntary exercise decreases amyloid load in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci 25(17): 4217–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aisen, P. S. and Davis, K. L. (1994). Inflammatory mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease: implications for therapy. Am J Psychiatry 151(8): 1105–13.Google ScholarPubMed
Aisen, P. S., Schafer, K. A., Grundman, al. (2003). Effects of rofecoxib or naproxen vs placebo on Alzheimer disease progression: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 289(21): 2819–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Almeida, O. P., Hulse, G. K., Lawrence, D. and Flicker, L. (2002). Smoking as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: contrasting evidence from a systematic review of case-control and cohort studies. Addiction 97(1): 15–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
,The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994). The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med330(15): 1029–35.
,Alzheimer's Association website (2005). Statistics about Alzheimer's Disease:
Areosa, S. A. and Grimley, E. V. (2002). Effect of the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus on the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD003804.Google ScholarPubMed
Ball, K., Berch, D. B., Helmers, K. al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288(18): 2271–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Behl, C. (2005). Oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease: implications for prevention and therapy. Subcell Biochem 38: 65–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brayne, C. (1991). The EURODEM collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease: implications for public health. Int J Epidemiol 20(Suppl 2): S68–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breteler, M. M., Claus, J. J., Duijn, C. M., Launer, L. J. and Hofman, A. (1992). Epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiol Rev 14: 59–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brookmeyer, R., Gray, S. and Kawas, C. (1998). Projections of Alzheimer's disease in the United States and the public health impact of delaying disease onset. Am J Public Health 88(9): 1337–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown, E. S., Varghese, F. P. and McEwen, B. S. (2004). Association of depression with medical illness: does cortisol play a role?Biol Psychiatry 55(1): 1–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Butters, M. A., Becker, J. T., Nebes, R. al. (2000). Changes in cognitive functioning following treatment of late-life depression. Am J Psychiatry 157(12): 1949–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, P., Ganguli, M., Mulsant, B. H. and DeKosky, S. T. (1999). The temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and dementia: a community-based prospective study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56(3): 261–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christensen, H., Griffiths, K., Mackinnon, A. and Jacomb, P. (1997). A quantitative review of cognitive deficits in depression and Alzheimer-type dementia. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 3(6): 631–51.Google ScholarPubMed
Colcombe, S. and Kramer, A. F. (2003). Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: a meta-analytic study. Psychol Sci 14(2): 125–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Di Bari, M., Pahor, M., Franse, L. al. (2001). Dementia and disability outcomes in large hypertension trials: lessons learned from the systolic hypertension in the elderly program (SHEP) trial. Am J Epidemiol 153(1): 72–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doraiswamy, P. M., Krishnan, K. R., Oxman, al. (2003). Does antidepressant therapy improve cognition in elderly depressed patients?J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 58(12): M1137–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dufouil, C., Fuhrer, R., Dartigues, J. F. and Alperovitch, A. (1996). Longitudinal analysis of the association between depressive symptomatology and cognitive deterioration. Am J Epidemiol 144(7): 634–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ellinson, M., Thomas, J. and Patterson, A. (2004). A critical evaluation of the relationship between serum vitamin B, folate and total homocysteine with cognitive impairment in the elderly. J Hum Nutr Diet 17(4): 371–83; quiz 385–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Engelhart, M. J., Geerlings, M. I., Ruitenberg, al. (2002). Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA 287(24): 3223–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ernst, R. L. and Hay, J. W. (1994). The US economic and social costs of Alzheimer's disease revisited. Am J Public Health 84(8): 1261–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evans, D. A., Funkenstein, H. H., Albert, M. al. (1989). Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in a community population of older persons. Higher than previously reported. JAMA 262(18): 2551–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Folstein, M. F., Bassett, S. S., Anthony, J. C., Romanoski, A. J. and Nestadt, G. R. (1991). Dementia: case ascertainment in a community survey. J Gerontol 46(4): M132–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forette, F., Seux, M. L., Staessen, J. al. (1998). Prevention of dementia in randomised double-blind placebo-controlled Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) trial. Lancet 352(9137): 1347–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fratiglioni, L., Wang, H. X., Ericsson, K., Maytan, M. and Winblad, B. (2000). Influence of social network on occurrence of dementia: a community-based longitudinal study. Lancet 355(9212): 1315–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fratiglioni, L., Paillard-Borg, S. and Winblad, B. (2004). An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. Lancet Neurol 3(6): 343–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gao, S., Hendrie, H. C., Hall, K. S. and Hui, S. (1998). The relationships between age, sex, and the incidence of dementia and Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55(9): 809–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Geerlings, M. I., Schoevers, R. A., Beekman, A. al. (2000). Depression and risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Results of two prospective community-based studies in the Netherlands. Br J Psychiatry 176: 568–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grady, D., Yaffe, K., Kristof, al. (2002). Effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on cognitive function: the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study. Am J Med 113(7): 543–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grant, W. B. (2003). Diet and risk of dementia: does fat matter? The Rotterdam Study. Neurology 60(12): 2020–1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hassing, L. B., Johansson, B., Nilsson, S. al. (2002). Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for vascular dementia, but not for Alzheimer's disease: a population-based study of the oldest old. Int Psychogeriatr 14(3): 239–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
,Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group (2002). MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet360(9326): 7–22.
Hebert, L. E., Scherr, P. A., McCann, J. J., Beckett, L. A. and Evans, D. A. (2001). Is the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease greater for women than for men?Am J Epidemiol 153(2): 132–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hebert, L. E., Scherr, P. A., Bienias, J. L., Bennett, D. A. and Evans, D. A. (2003). Alzheimer disease in the US population: prevalence estimates using the 2000 census. Arch Neurol 60(8): 1119–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hendrie, H. C., Osuntokun, B. O., Hall, K. al. (1995). Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and dementia in two communities: Nigerian Africans and African Americans. Am J Psychiatry 152(10): 1485–92.Google ScholarPubMed
Heyman, A., Wilkinson, W. E., Stafford, J. al. (1984). Alzheimer's disease: a study of epidemiological aspects. Ann Neurol 15(4): 335–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jorm, A. F. (2001). History of depression as a risk factor for dementia: an updated review. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 35(6): 776–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jorm, A. F. and Jolley, D. (1998). The incidence of dementia: a meta-analysis. Neurology 51(3): 728–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kalmijn, S., Launer, L. J., Ott, al. (1997). Dietary fat intake and the risk of incident dementia in the Rotterdam Study. Ann Neurol 42(5): 776–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knopman, D., Boland, L. L., Mosley, al. (2001). Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive decline in middle-aged adults. Neurology 56(1): 42–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuller, L. H., Lopez, O. L., Newman, al. (2003). Risk factors for dementia in the cardiovascular health cognition study. Neuroepidemiology 22(1): 13–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Launer, L. J., Ross, G. W., Petrovitch, al. (2000). Midlife blood pressure and dementia: the Honolulu-Asia aging study. Neurobiol Aging 21(1): 49–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lazarov, O., Robinson, J., Tang, Y. al. (2005). Environmental enrichment reduces abeta levels and amyloid deposition in transgenic mice. Cell 120(5): 701–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lim, W., Gammack, J., Niekerk, J. and Dangour, A. (2006). Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD005379.Google ScholarPubMed
Lindsay, J., Laurin, D., Verreault, al. (2002). Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: a prospective analysis from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Am J Epidemiol 156(5): 445–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luchsinger, J. A., Tang, M. X., Shea, al. (2004). Plasma homocysteine levels and risk of Alzheimer disease. Neurology 62(11): 1972–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lyketsos, C. G., Lopez, O., Jones, al. (2002). Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment: results from the cardiovascular health study. JAMA 288(12): 1475–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacKnight, C., Rockwood, K., Awalt, E. and McDowell, I. (2002). Diabetes mellitus and the risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease and vascular cognitive impairment in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 14(2): 77–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Malouf, M., Grimley, E. J. and Areosa, S. A. (2003). Folic acid with or without vitamin B12 for cognition and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD004514.Google ScholarPubMed
Manly, J. J., Jacobs, D. M. and Mayeux, R. (1999). Alzheimer disease among different ethnic and racial groups. In Alzheimer Disease, 2nd edn, Terry, R. D., Katzman, R., Bick, K. L. and Sisodia, S. S. (eds.). New York: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, pp. 117–32.Google Scholar
Maxwell, C. J., Hicks, M. S., Hogan, D. B., Basran, J. and Ebly, E. M. (2005). Supplemental use of antioxidant vitamins and subsequent risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 20(1): 45–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGeer, P. L., Schulzer, M. and McGeer, E. G. (1996). Arthritis and anti-inflammatory agents as possible protective factors for Alzheimer's disease: a review of 17 epidemiologic studies. Neurology 47(2): 425–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mehta, K. M., Ott, A., Kalmijn, al. (1999). Head trauma and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: the Rotterdam Study. Neurology 53(9): 1959–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, M. C., Evans, D. A., Tangney, C. C., Bienias, J. L. and Wilson, R. S. (2005). Fish consumption and cognitive decline with age in a large community study. Arch Neurol 62(12): 1849–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mukamal, K. J., Kuller, L. H., Fitzpatrick, A. al. (2003). Prospective study of alcohol consumption and risk of dementia in older adults. JAMA 289(11): 1405–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mulnard, R. A., Cotman, C. W., Kawas, al. (2000). Estrogen replacement therapy for treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: a randomized controlled trial. Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study. JAMA 283(8): 1007–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nebes, R. D., Pollock, B. G., Houck, P. al. (2003). Persistence of cognitive impairment in geriatric patients following antidepressant treatment: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial with nortriptyline and paroxetine. J Psychiatr Res 37(2): 99–108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersen, R. C., Thomas, R. G., Grundman, al. (2005). Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment. N Engl J Med 352(23): 2379–88.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Qiu, C., Winblad, B. and Fratiglioni, L. (2005). The age-dependent relation of blood pressure to cognitive function and dementia. Lancet Neurol 4(8): 487–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rea, T. D., Breitner, J. C., Psaty, B. al. (2005). Statin use and the risk of incident dementia: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Arch Neurol 62(7): 1047–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rice, D. P., Fox, P. J., Max, al. (1993). The economic burden of Alzheimer's disease care. Health Aff (Millwood) 12(2): 164–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rocca, W. A., Cha, R. H., Waring, S. C. and Kokmen, E. (1998). Incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a reanalysis of data from Rochester, Minnesota, 1975–1984. Am J Epidemiol 148(1): 51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruitenberg, A., Swieten, J. C., Witteman, J. al. (2002). Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia: the Rotterdam Study. Lancet 359(9303): 281–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saczynski, J. S., Pfeifer, L. A., Masaki, al. (2006). The effect of social engagement on incident dementia: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol 163(5): 433–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sano, M., Ernesto, C., Thomas, R. al. (1997). A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study. N Engl J Med 336(17): 1216–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scarmeas, N., Levy, G., Tang, M. X., Manly, J. and Stern, Y. (2001). Influence of leisure activity on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 57(12): 2236–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seshadri, S., Beiser, A., Selhub, al. (2002). Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med 346(7): 476–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
,SHEP Cooperative Research Group (1991). Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). JAMA265(24): 3255–64.
Shumaker, S. A., Legault, C., Rapp, S. al. (2003). Estrogen plus progestin and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 289(20): 2651–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shumaker, S. A., Legault, C., Kuller, al. (2004). Conjugated equine estrogens and incidence of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women: Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. JAMA 291(24): 2947–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Snowdon, D. A., Kemper, S. J., Mortimer, J. al. (1996). Linguistic ability in early life and cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life. Findings from the Nun Study. JAMA 275(7): 528–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Snowdon, D. A., Greiner, L. H., Mortimer, J. al. (1997). Brain infarction and the clinical expression of Alzheimer disease. The Nun Study. JAMA 277(10): 813–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stampfer, M. J., Kang, J. H., Chen, J., Cherry, R. and Grodstein, F. (2005). Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive function in women. N Engl J Med 352(3): 245–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Starkstein, S. E., Jorge, R., Mizrahi, R. and Robinson, R. G. (2005). The construct of minor and major depression in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 162(11): 2086–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stern, Y. (2002). What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 8(3): 448–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stern, Y., Gurland, B., Tatemichi, T. al. (1994). Influence of education and occupation on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. JAMA 271(13): 1004–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Szekely, C. A., Thorne, J. E., Zandi, P. al. (2004). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review. Neuroepidemiology 23(4): 159–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tang, M. X., Cross, P., Andrews, H., D. et al. (2001). Incidence of AD in African-Americans, Caribbean Hispanics, and Caucasians in northern Manhattan. Neurology 56(1): 49–56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tzourio, C., Anderson, C., Chapman, al. (2003). Effects of blood pressure lowering with perindopril and indapamide therapy on dementia and cognitive decline in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Arch Intern Med 163(9): 1069–75.Google ScholarPubMed
,US Department of Health and Human Services (1996). Physical Activity and Health: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
Praag, H., Christie, B. R., Sejnowski, T. J. and Gage, F. H. (1999). Running enhances neurogenesis, learning, and long-term potentiation in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96(23): 13427–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verghese, J., Lipton, R. B., Katz, M. al. (2003). Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly. N Engl J Med 348(25): 2508–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vermeer, S. E., Prins, N. D., Heijer, al. (2003). Silent brain infarcts and the risk of dementia and cognitive decline. N Engl J Med 348(13): 1215–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waters, D. D., Alderman, E. L., Hsia, al. (2002). Effects of hormone replacement therapy and antioxidant vitamin supplements on coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288(19): 2432–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weuve, J., Kang, J. H., Manson, J. al. (2004). Physical activity, including walking, and cognitive function in older women. JAMA 292(12): 1454–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
White, L., Petrovitch, H., Ross, G. al. (1996). Prevalence of dementia in older Japanese-American men in Hawaii: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. JAMA 276(12): 955–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whitmer, R. A., Sidney, S., Selby, J., Johnston, S. C. and Yaffe, K. (2005). Midlife cardiovascular risk factors and risk of dementia in late life. Neurology 64(2): 277–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, R. S., Bennett, D. A., Bienias, J. al. (2002a). Cognitive activity and incident AD in a population-based sample of older persons. Neurology 59(12): 1910–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, R. S., Mendes De Leon, C. F., Barnes, L. al. (2002b). Participation in cognitively stimulating activities and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. JAMA 287(6): 742–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, R. S., Barnes, L. L., Mendes de Leon, C. al. (2002c). Depressive symptoms, cognitive decline, and risk of AD in older persons. Neurology 59(3): 364–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Xiong, G. L., Benson, A. and Doraiswamy, P. M. (2005). Statins and cognition: what can we learn from existing randomized trials?CNS Spectr 10(11): 867–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yaffe, K. (2001). Estrogens, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and dementia: what is the evidence?Ann N Y Acad Sci 949: 215–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yaffe, K., Blackwell, T., Gore, al. (1999). Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in nondemented elderly women: a prospective study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56(5): 425–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yaffe, K., Barnes, D., Nevitt, M., Lui, L. Y. and Covinsky, K. (2001). A prospective study of physical activity and cognitive decline in elderly women: women who walk. Arch Intern Med 161(14): 1703–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yaffe, K., Blackwell, T., Kanaya, A. al. (2004a). Diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and development of cognitive impairment in older women. Neurology 63(4): 658–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yaffe, K., Kanaya, A., Lindquist, al. (2004b). The metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and risk of cognitive decline. JAMA 292(18): 2237–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yaffe, K., Krueger, K., Cummings, S. al. (2005). Effect of raloxifene on prevention of dementia and cognitive impairment in older women: the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) randomized trial. Am J Psychiatry 162(4): 683–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats