Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-zdfhw Total loading time: 0.807 Render date: 2022-08-13T18:10:26.791Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true
Austral Ark Austral Ark
The State of Wildlife in Australia and New Zealand
Buy print or eBook[Opens in a new window]

Book contents

Chapter 16 - Marine mammals, back from the brink? Contemporary conservation issues

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 November 2014

Robert Harcourt
Macquarie University
Helene Marsh
James Cook University, Australia
David Slip
Taronga Conservation Society
Louise Chilvers
Massey University, New Zealand
Mike Noad
University of Queensland
Rebecca Dunlop
University of Queensland
Adam Stow
Macquarie University, Sydney
Norman Maclean
University of Southampton
Gregory I. Holwell
University of Auckland
Get access



The extensive territorial waters of Australia and New Zealands (NZ) (over 8 million km2 for Australia and a further 4 million km2 for NZ) are home to approximately 49 species of whales and dolphins, 11 species of seals and the dugong. Within Australia, at least eight species are listed as threatened, though there is insufficient information on a further 25 to determine their conservation status, while in NZ eight species are listed as threatened. The relationship between humans and Australasia’s marine mammals is culturally diverse and has changed significantly in recent years. Dugongs and stranded whales have been important both spiritually and as a source of nutrition to some Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders for thousands of years; seals and whales had a similar role for Maori in NZ. In recent history, exploitation of baleen whales, elephant seals and fur seals was an important driver for much of the earliest European settlement of Australasia. The success of the whaling and sealing industries came at the expense of marine mammal populations, leading to the near extirpation of many species by the mid twentieth century. In more recent decades there has been a fundamental shift in public attitudes towards marine mammals, in particular the great whales and dolphins. All marine mammals are protected within Australia and NZ waters. Traditional hunting of dugongs is legal in Australia for Native Title holders.

Austral Ark
The State of Wildlife in Australia and New Zealand
, pp. 322 - 353
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2014

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Acevedo-Gutiérrez, A., Croll, D. A. & Tershy, B. R. (2002). High feeding costs limit dive time in the largest whales. Journal of Experimental Biology, 205, 1747–1753.Google ScholarPubMed
Acoustic Ecology Institute (2009). Ocean Noise 2009 Science, Policy, Legal Developments. Acoustic Ecology Institute, Santa Fe, 45 pages.Google Scholar
AFMA (2011). Protecting Marine Wildlife in the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery (27 April 2011). Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA), Australian Government, Canberra.
AFMA (2012). Australian Sea Lion Bycatch Triggers – Changes to Fisheries Management Arrangements to Further Protect Australian Sea Lion Sub-populations in the Gillnet, Hook and Trap Fishery. Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA), Australian Government, Canberra. (accessed 26 April 2012).
Agnew, D. J. (1997). Review – The CCAMLR ecosystem monitoring programme. Antarctic Science, 9(03), 235–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atkinson, A., Siegel, V., Pakhomov, E. & Rothery, P. (2004). Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern Ocean. Nature, 432(7013), 100–103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) (2011). Shipping and Offshore activity data for Australian ports and waters 14 Dec 2011.
Authier, M., Delord, K. & Guinet, C. (2011). Population trends of female Elephant Seals breeding on the Courbet Peninsula, îles Kerguelen. Polar Biology, 34(3), 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bailey, H., Senior, B., Simmons, D., et al.(2010). Assessing underwater noise levels during pile-driving at an offshore windfarm and its potential effects on marine mammals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60, 888–897.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baker, A. (1999). Unusual Mortality of the New Zealand Sea Lion, Phocarctos hookeri, Auckland Islands, January – February 1998. Department of Conservation, Wellington.Google Scholar
Baker, C. S., Chilvers, B. L., Constantine, R., et al.(2010). Conservation status of New Zealand marine mammals (suborders Cetacea and Pinnipedia), 2009. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 44(2), 101–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bannister, J. L. (1964). Australian whaling 1963, catch results and research. CSIRO Division of Fisheries and Oceanography Reports, 38, 13 pages.Google Scholar
Bannister, J. L. (1995). Report on aerial survey and photoidentification of humpback whales off Western Australia, 1994. Report to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency (unpublished), 17 pages. [Available from Dept of Environment and Heritage, PO Box 787, Canberra, Australia.]
Bannister, J. L. & Hedley, S. L. (2001). Southern Hemisphere Group IV humpback whales: their status from recent aerial surveys. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 47, 587–598.Google Scholar
Bannister, J. L., Kirkwood, G. P. & Wayte, S. E. (1991). Increase in humpback whales off Western Australia. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, 41, 461–465.Google Scholar
Bannister, J. L., Kemper, C. M. & Warneke, R. M. (1996). The Action Plan for Australian Cetaceans. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.Google Scholar
Beasley, I., Robertson, K. M. & Arnold, P. (2006). Description of a new dolphin, the Australian snubfin dolphin Orcaella heinsohni sp. n.(Cetacea, Delphinidae). Marine Mammal Science, 21(3), 365–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bejder, L., Samuels, A., Whitehead, H., et al. (2006). Decline in relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins exposed to long-term disturbance. Conservation Biology, 20, 1791–1798.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Best, P. B. (1993). Increase rates in severely depleted stocks of baleen whales. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 50, 169–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bilgmann, K., Möller, L. M., Harcourt, R. G., Gales, R. & Beheregaray, L. B. (2008). Common dolphins subject to fisheries impacts in Southern Australia are genetically differentiated: implications for conservation. Animal Conservation, 11(6), 518–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bintanja, R., van Oldenborgh, G. J., Drijfhout, S. S., Wouters, B. & Katsman, C. A. (2013). Important role for ocean warming and increased ice-shelf melt in Antarctic sea-ice expansion. Nature Geoscience, 6, 376–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Biuw, M., Boehme, L., Guinet, C., et al. (2007). Variations in behaviour and condition in a Southern Ocean top predator in relation to in situ oceanographic conditions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 13705–13710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Biuw, M., Nøst, O. A., Stien, A., et al. (2010). Effects of hydrographic variability on the spatial, seasonal and diel diving patterns of Southern Elephant Seals in the Eastern Weddell Sea. PLoS ONE, 5, e13816.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Black, J. J. (2010), Behavioural responses of Australian fur seals to boat-based ecotourism. Msc thesis, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University.
Boren, L. J., Gemmell, N. J. & Barton, K. J. (2002). Tourist disturbance on New Zealand fur seals Arctocephalus forsteri. Australian Mammalogy, 24, 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bossart, G. D. (2006). Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health. Oceanography, 19(2), 134–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bossart, G. D. (2007). Emerging diseases in marine mammals: from dolphins to manatees. Microbe-American Society for Microbiology, 2(11), 544–549.Google Scholar
Boyd, I. L., Walker, T. R. & Poncet, J. (1996). Status of southern elephant seals at South Georgia. Antarctic Science, 8, 237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradshaw, C. J., Hindell, M. A., Best, N. J., et al. (2003). You are what you eat: describing the foraging ecology of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) using blubber fatty acids. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 270(1521), 1283–1292.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bradshaw, C. J., Hindell, M. A., Sumner, M. D. & Michael, K. J. (2004). Loyalty pays: potential life history consequences of fidelity to marine foraging regions by southern elephant seals. Animal Behaviour, 68(6), 1349–1360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brandao, A., Butterworth, D. S. & Brown, M. R. (2000). Maximum possible humpback whale increase rates as a function of biological parameter values. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, (Suppl.), 2, 192–193.Google Scholar
Burton, H. & van den Hoff, J. (2002). Humans and the southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina. Australian Mammalogy, 24(1), 127–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campagna, C. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) (2008). Mirounga leonina. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. . Downloaded on 10 April 2013.
Campagna, C., Falabella, V. & Lewis, M. (2007). Entanglement of southern elephant seals in squid fishing gear. Marine Mammal Science, 23, 414–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carey, P. W. (1991). Resource-defense polygyny and male territory quality in the New Zealand fur seal. Ethology, 88, 63–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, E., Patenaude, N., Alexander, A., et al. (2011). Population structure and individual movement of southern right whales around New Zealand and Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 432, 257–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, G., Hedley, S., Bannister, J., Ensor, P. & Harcourt, R. (2014). No evidence for recovery in the population of sperm whale bulls off Western Australia, 30 years since the cessation of whaling. Endangered Species Research, 24, 33–43.CrossRef
Charlton-Robb, K., Gershwin, L. A., Thompson, R., et al. (2011). A new dolphin species, the Burrunan dolphin Tursiops australis sp. endemic to Southern Australian coastal waters. PloS ONE, 6(9), e24047CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chilvers, B. L. (2009). Foraging locations of a decreasing colony of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri). New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 33, 106–113.Google Scholar
Chilvers, B. L. (2012a). Life-history traits of New Zealand sea lions, Auckland Islands, during a period of significant pup production decline. Journal of Zoology, London, 287, 240–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chilvers, B. L. (2012b). Population viability analysis of New Zealand sea lions, Auckland Islands, New Zealand’s sub-Antarctic’s: assessing relative impacts and uncertainty. Polar Biology, 35, 1607–1615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chilvers, B. L. & Corkeron, P. J. (2001). Trawling and bottlenose dolphins’ social structure. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 268(1479), 1901–1905.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chilvers, B. L. & Mackenzie, D. (2010). Age and sex specific survival estimates incorporating tag loss for New Zealand sea lions, Phocarctos hookeri. Journal of Mammology, 91, 758–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chilvers, B. L. & Wilkinson, I. S. (2009). Divers foraging strategies in lactating New Zealand sea lions. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 378, 299–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chilvers, B. L., Wilkinson, I. S.Duignan, P. J. & Gemmell, N. J. (2005). Identifying the distribution of summer foraging areas for lactating New Zealand sea lions, Phocarctos hookeri. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 304, 235–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chilvers, B. L., Wilkinson, I. S.Duignan, P. J. & Gemmell, N. (2006). Diving to extremes: are New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) pushing their limits in a marginal habitat?Journal of Zoology, London, 269, 233–241.Google Scholar
Chilvers, B. L., Robertson, B. C., Wilkinson, I. S. & Duignan, P. (2007). Growth and survival of New Zealand sea lions, Phocarctos hookeri: birth to 3 months. Polar Biology, 30, 459–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chilvers, B. L., Wilkinson, I. S. & McKenzie, D. (2010). Predicting life-history traits for female New Zealand sea lions, Phocarctos hookeri: integrating short-term mark-recapture data and population modelling. Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Ecological Statistics, 15, 259–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chittleborough, R. G. (1965). Dynamics of two populations of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 16, 33–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clapham, P., Mikhalev, Yu, Franklin, W., et al. (2009). Catches of humpback whales by the Soviet Union and other nations in the Southern Ocean, 1947–1973. Marine Fisheries Review, 71, 39–43.Google Scholar
Connelly, R. (2009). Seagrass. In A Marine Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Report Card for Australia 2009 (Eds. Poloczanska, E. S., Hobday, A. J. & Richardson, A. J.). NCCARF Publication 05/09, ISBN .Google Scholar
Croll, D. A., Clark, C. W., Calambokidis, J., Ellison, W. T. & Tershy, B. R. (2001). Effect of anthropogenic low-frequency noise on the foraging ecology of Balaenoptera whales. Animal Conservation, 4, 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crouch, J., McNiven, I. J., David, B., Rowe, C. & Weisler, M. I. (2007). Berberass: Marine resource specialisation and environmental change in Torres Strait during the past 4000 years. Archaeology in Oceania, 42, 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Croxall, J. P., Callaghan, T., Cervellati, R. & Walton, D. W. H. (1992). Southern Ocean environmental changes: effects on seabird, seal and whale populations [and discussion]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 338, 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daley, B., Griggs, P. & Marsh, H. (2008). Exploiting marine wildlife in Queensland: The commercial dugong and marine turtle fisheries, 1847–1969. Australian Economic History Review, 48, 227–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawbin, W. H. (1966). The seasonal migratory cycle of Humpback whales.. In: Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises, (Ed. Norris, K. S.), pp. 145–170. University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles.Google Scholar
de Little, S. C., Bradshaw, C. J., McMahon, C. R. & Hindell, M. A. (2007). Complex interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of long-term survival trends in southern elephant seals. BMC Ecology, 7, 3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dickie, G. S. & Dawson, S. M. (2003). Age, growth and reproduction of New Zealand fur seals. Marine Mammal Science, 19, 173–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DOC (2009). New Zealand Sea Lion Species Management Plan: 2009–2014. Department of Conservation, Science & Technical Report.
Evans, K., Thresher, R., Warneke, R. M., et al. (2005). Periodic variabiltiy in cetacean strandings: links to large-scale climate events. Biology Letters, 1, 147–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frère, C., Seddon, J., Palmer, C., Porter, L. J. & Parra, G. J. (2011). Multiple lines of evidence for an Australasian geographic boundary in the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis): population or species divergence?Conservation Genetics, 1, 1–6.Google Scholar
Fury, C. A. & Harrison, P. L. (2011). Impact of flood events on dolphin occupancy patterns. Marine Mammal Science, 27, E185–E205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gales, N. J., Shaughnessy, P. D. & Dennis, T. E. (1994). Distribution, abundance and breeding cycle of the Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea (Mammalia: Pinnipedia). Journal of Zoology, London, 234, 353–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gill, P. C., Morrice, M. G., Page, B., et al. (2012). Blue Whale habitat selection and within-season distribution in a regional upwelling system off southern Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 421, 243–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldsworthy, S. D. & Page, B. (2007). A risk-assessment approach to evaluating the significance of seal bycatch in two Australian fisheries. Biological Conservation, 139, 269–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grech, A., Coles, R. & Marsh, H. (2011). A broad-scale assessment of the risk to coastal seagrasses from cumulative threats. Marine Policy, 35, 560–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gribble, N. A., McPherson, G. & Lane, B. (1998). Effect of the Queensland Shark Control Program on non-target species: whale, dugong, turtle and dolphin: a review. Marine and Freshwater Research, 49, 645–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Groom, C. & Coughran, D. (2012). Entanglements of baleen whales off the coast of Western Australia between 1982 and 2010: patterns of occurrence, outcomes and management responses. Pacific Conservation Biology, 18(3), 203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guinet, C., Jouventin, P. & Weimerskirch, H. (1999). Recent population change of the southern elephant seal at Îles Crozet and Îles Kerguelen: the end of the decrease?Antarctic Science,11, 193–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gulesserian, M., Slip, D., Heller, G. & Harcourt, R. (2011). Modelling the behaviour state of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae in response to vessel presence off Sydney, Australia. Endangered Species Research, 15(3), 255–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hagihara, R., Jones, R., Sheppard, J., et al. (in press). Improving population estimates by quantifying diving and surfacing patterns: a dugong example. Marine Mammal Science.
Hale, P. (1997). Conservation of inshore dolphins in Australia. Asian Marine Biology, 14, 83–91.Google Scholar
Halpern, B. S., Walbridge, S., Selkoe, K. A. et al. (2008). A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science, 319, 948–952.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamer, D. J. & Goldsworthy, S. D. (2006). Seal-fishery operational interactions: identifying the environmental and operational aspects of a trawl fishery that contribute to by-catch and mortality of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Biological Conservation, 130, 517–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamer, D. J., Ward, T. M. & McGarvey, R. (2008). Measurement, management and mitigation of operational interactions between the South Australian Sardine Fishery and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). Biological Conservation, 141, 2865–2878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamer, D. J., Ward, T. M., Shaughnessy, P. D. & Clark, S. R. (2011). Assessing the effectiveness of the Great Australian Bight Marine Park in protecting the endangered Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea from bycatch mortality in shark gillnets. Endangered Species Research, 14, 203–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harcourt, R., Aurioles, D. & Sanchez, J. (1994). Entanglement in man-made debris of California sea lions at Los Islotes, Bay of La Paz, Mexico. Marine Mammal Science,10, 122–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harcourt, R. G. (2001). Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990–2000: pinnipeds. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 31, 135–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harcourt, R. G., Pirotta, V., Heller, G., Peddemors, V. & Slip, D. (2014). Whale alarms fail to deter migrating humpback whales: an empirical test. Endangered Species Research. .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harvell, C. D., Kim, K., Burkholder, J. M., et al. (1999). Emerging marine diseases – climate links and anthropogenic factors. Science, 285, 1505–1510.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harwood, J. & Hall, A. (1990). Mass mortality in marine mammals: its implications for population dynamics and genetics. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 5, 254–257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hatch, L. & Wright, A. (2007). A brief review of anthropogenic sound in the oceans. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 20, 121–133.Google Scholar
Hedley, S. L., Bannister, J. L. & Dunlop, R. A. (2011). Abundance estimates of Breeding Stock ‘D’ Humpback Whales from aerial and land-based surveys off Shark Bay, Western Australia, 2008. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, Humpback Whale Special Issue, 3, 209–221.Google Scholar
Heinsohn, R., Lacy, R. C., Lindenmayer, D. B., et al. (2004). Unsustainable harvest of dugongs in Torres Strait and Cape York (Australia) waters: two case studies using population viability analysis. Animal Conservation, 7, 417–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hindell, M. A. & Burton, H. R. (1987). Past and present status of the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) at Macquarie Island. Journal of Zoology, 213(2), 365–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hindell, M. A. & Burton, H. R. (1988). The history of the elephant seal industry at Macquarie Island and an estimate of the pre-sealing numbers. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 122, 159–176.Google Scholar
Hindell, M. A., Bradshaw, C. J. A., Sumner, M. D., Michael, K. J. & Burton, H. R. (2003). Dispersal of female southern elephant seals and their prey consumption during the Austral summer: relevance to management and oceanographic zones. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40, 703–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoelzel, A. R., Campagna, C. & Arnbom, T. (2001). Genetic and morphometric differentiation between island and mainland southern elephant seal populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 268, 325–332.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hodgson, A. J. & Marsh, H. (2007). Response of dugongs to boat traffic: the risk of disturbance and displacement. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 340, 50–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hodgson, A. J., Marsh, H., Gales, N., Holley, D. K. & Lawler, I. (2008). Dugong Population Trends Across Two Decades in Shark Bay, Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf. Denham, Western Australia: WA Department of Environment and Conservation. 38 pages.Google Scholar
International Whaling Commission (IWC) (2006). Report of the Workshop on the Comprehensive Assessment of Southern Humpback Whales. Paper SC/58/Rep 5 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, June 2006 (unpublished), 77 pages.
IUCN (2011). ‘IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Version 2011.2).’ Available at [accessed 10 March 2012].
Jackson, J. A., Patenaude, N. J., Carroll, E. L. & Baker, C. S. (2008). How few whales were there after whaling? Inference from contemporary mtDNA diversity. Molecular Ecology, 17, 236–251.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jefferson, T. A. & Rosenbaum, H. C. (2014). Taxonomic revision of the humpback dolphins (sousa spp.), and description of a new species from Australia. Marine Mammal Science. .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kastak, D., Southall, B. L., Schusterman, R. J., & Kastak, C. R. (2005). Underwater temporary threshold shift in pinnipeds: Effects of noise level and duration. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118, 3154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kemper, C., Gibbs, P., Obendorf, D., Marvanek, S. & Lenghaus, C. (1994). A review of heavy metal and organochlorine levels in marine mammals in Australia. The Science of the Total Environment, 154, 129–139.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kemper, C. M., Flaherty, A., Gibbs, S. E., et al. (2005). Cetacean captures, strandings and mortalities in South Australia 1881–2000, with special reference to human interactions. Australian Mammalogy, 27, 37–47.Google Scholar
Kemper, C., Coughran, D., Warneke, R., et al. (2008). Southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) mortalities and human interactions in Australia, 1950–2006. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, 10(1), 1–8.Google Scholar
Kessler, M. & Harcourt, R. G. (2013). Whale watching regulation compliance trends and the implications for management off Sydney, Australia. Marine Policy, 42, 14–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kirkwood, R., Gales, R., Terauds, A., et al. (2005). Pup production and population trends of the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Marine Mammal Science, 21, 260–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kovacs, K. M., Aguilar, A., Aurioles, D., et al. (2012). Global threats to pinnipeds. Marine Mammal Science, 28(2), 414–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laist, D. W., Knowlton, A. R., Mead, J. G., Collet, A. S. & Podesta, M. (2001). Collisions between ships and whales. Marine Mammal Science, 17, 35–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawler, I. R., Parra, G. & Noad, M. (2007). Vulnerability of marine mammals in the Great Barrier Reef to climate change. In Climate Change and the Great Barrier Reef: a Vulnerability Assessment. (Eds. Johnson, J. E., & Marshall, A.), pp. 497–513. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority: Townsville, Queensland.Google Scholar
Laws, R. M. (1994). History and present status of southern elephant seal populations. In: Le Boeuf, B. J. & Laws, R. M. (eds.) Elephant Seals: Population Ecology, Behavior, and Physiology. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 49–65.Google Scholar
Leaper, R. & Miller, C. (2011). Management of Antarctic baleen whales amid past exploitation, current threats and complex marine ecosystmes. Antarctic Science, 23, 503–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lemon, M., Lynch, T. P., Cato, D. H. & Harcourt, R. G. (2006). Response of travelling bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) to experimental approaches by a powerboat in Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation, 127, 363–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ling, J. K. (2002). Impact of colonial sealing on seal stocks around Australia, New Zealand and subantarctic islands between 150 and 170 degrees East. Australian Mammalogy, 24, 117–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacLeod, C. D. (2009). Global climate change, range changes and potential implications for the conservation of marine cetaceans: a review and synthesis. Endangered Species Research, 7, 125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacLeod, C. D., Bannon, S. M., Pierce, G. J., et al. (2005). Climate change and the cetacean community of north-west Scotland. Biological Conservation, 124, 477–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maloney, A., Chilvers, B. L., Muller, C. G. & Haley, M. (2012). Increasing pup production of New Zealand sea lions at Campbell Island/Motu Ihupuku: can it continue?New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 39, 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsh, H. (1989). Mass stranding of dugongs by a tropical cyclone in Northern Australia. Marine Mammal Science, 5, 78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsh, H. (1996). Progress towards the sustainable use of dugongs by indigenous peoples in Queensland. In: The Sustainable Use of Wildlife by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People, pp. 139–151.Google Scholar
Marsh, H. & Kwan, D. (2008). Temporal variability in the life history and reproductive biology of female dugongs in Torres Strait: the likely role of sea grass dieback. Continental Shelf Research, 28, 2152–2159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsh, H. & Sinclair, D. F. (1989). Correcting for visibility bias in strip transect aerial surveys of aquatic fauna. Journal of Wildlife Management, 53(4), 1017–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsh, H., Corkeron, P., Lawler, I. R., Lanyon, J. M. & Preen, A. R. (1996). The Status of the Dugong in the Southern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. GBRMPA Research Publication No. 41, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, Queensland.Google Scholar
Marsh, H., Harris, A. N. M. & Lawler, I. R. (1997). The sustainability of the indigenous dugong fishery in Torres Strait, Australia/Papua New Guinea. Conservation Biology, 11, 1375–1386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsh, H., De’ath, G., Gribble, N., Lane, B. & Lawler, I. R. (2001). Shark Control Records Hindcast Serious Decline in Dugong Numbers off the Urban Coast of Queensland/Dugong Distribution and Abundance in the Southern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and Hervey Bay: Results of an Aerial Survey in October-December 1999. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.Google Scholar
Marsh, H., Penrose, H., Eros, C. & Hugues, J. (2002). The Dugong (Dugong dugon) Status Reports and Action Plans for Countries and Territories in its Range. Early Warning and Assessment Reports. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme. 162 pages.Google Scholar
Marsh, H., Lawler, I. R., Kwan, D., et al. (2004). Aerial surveys and the potential biological removal technique indicate that the Torres Strait dugong fishery is unsustainable. Animal Conservation, 7, 435–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsh, H., De’ath, G., Gribble, N. & Lane, B. (2005). Historical marine population estimates: triggers or targets for conservation? The dugong case study. Ecological Applications, 15, 481–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsh, H., Hodgson, A., Lawler, I., Grech, A. & Delean, S. (2007). Condition, status and trends and projected futures of the dugong in the Northern Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait; including identification and evaluation of the key threats and evaluation of available management option to improve its status. Final Report to Marine and Tropical Science Research Facility, 73 pp. Downloaded from the internet 10 October 2010. .Google Scholar
Marsh, H., O’Shea, T. J. & Reynolds, J. R. (2011). The Ecology and Conservation of Sirenia; Dugongs and Manatees. Cambridge University Press, 521 pages.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martinez, E., Orams, M. B., Pawley, M. D. M. & Stockin, K. A. (2012). The use of auditory stimulants during swim encounters with hector’s dolphins in Akaroa harbour, New Zealand. Marine Mammal Science, 28, E295–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKenzie, L. J., Collier, C. & Waycott, M. (2012). Reef Rescue Marine Monitoring Program – Inshore Seagrass, Annual Report for the sampling period 1st July 2010–31st May 2011. Fisheries Queensland, Cairns. 230 pages.Google Scholar
McMahon, C. R. & Burton, H. R. (2005). Climate change and seal surival: evidence for environmentally mediated changes in elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, pup survival. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272, 923–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McMahon, C. R., Bester, M. N., Burton, H. R., Hindell, M. A. & Bradshaw, C. J. (2005a). Population status, trends and a re‐examination of the hypotheses explaining the recent declines of the southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina. Mammal Review, 35, 82–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McMahon, C. R., Hindell, M. A., Burton, H. R. & Bester, M. N. (2005b). Comparison of southern elephant seal populations, and observations of a population on a demographic knife-edge. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 288, 273–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McMahon, C. R., Bester, M. N., Hindell, M. A., Brook, B. W. & Bradshaw, C. J. A. (2009). Shifting trends: detecting environmentally mediated regulation in long-lived marine vertebrates using time-series data. Oecologia, 159, 69–82CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNiven, I. J. & Bedingfield, A. C. (2008). Past and present marine mammal hunting rates and abundances: dugong (Dugong dugon) evidence from Dabangai Bone Mound, Torres Strait. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35, 505–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mikhalev, Y. A. (2000). Biological characteristics of humpbacks taken in Antarctic Area V by the whaling fleets Slava and Sovietskaya Ukraina. Paper SC/52/IA12 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, May 2003 (unpublished), 18 pages.
Miller, D. G. M. (2007). Managing fishing in the sub-Antarctic. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 141, 121–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Möller, L. M., Allen, S. J. & Harcourt, R. G. (2002). Group characteristics, site fidelity and seasonal abundance of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus in Jervis Bay and Port Stephens, south-eastern Australia. Australian Mammalogy, 24, 11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nachtigall, P. E., Pawloski, J. L. & Au, W. W. (2003). Temporary threshold shifts and recovery following noise exposure in the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 113, 3425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newland, C. B., Field, I. C., Cherel, Y., et al. (2011). Diet of juvenile southern elephant seals reappraised by stable isotopes in whiskers. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 424, 247–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noad, M., Dunlop, R., Paton, D. & Cato, D. (2011). Absolute and relative abundance estimates of Australian east coast humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management; Humpback Whale Special Issue, 3, 243–252.Google Scholar
Nicol, S., Worby, A. & Leaper, R. (2008). Changes in the Antarctic sea ice ecosystem: potential effects on krill and baleen whales. Marine and Freshwater Research, 59, 361–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parks, S., Johnson, M., Nowacek, D. & Tyack, P. (2011). Individual right whales call louder in increased environmental noiseBiology Letters, 7, 33–35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parra, G. J. (2006). Resource partitioning in sympatric delphinids: space use and habitat preferences of Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Journal of Animal Ecology, 75, 862–874.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paterson, R., Paterson, P. & Cato, D. H. (1994). The status of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae in east Australia thirty years after whaling. Biological Conservation, 70, 135–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pollock, K., Marsh, H., Lawler, I. & Alldredge, M. (2006). Modelling availability and perception processes for strip and line transects: an application to dugong aerial surveys. Journal of Wildlife Management, 70, 255–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pompa, S., Ehrlich, P. R. & Ceballos, G. (2011). Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 13 600–13 605.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reilly, S. B., Bannister, J. L., Best, P. B., et al. (2008). Megaptera novaeangliae. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. . Downloaded on 11 March 2013.
Richardson, W. J. & Würsig, B. (1997). Influences of man‐made noise and other human actions on cetacean behaviour. Marine & Freshwater Behaviour & Physiology, 29(1–4), 183–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richardson, W. J. & Thomson, D. H. (1998). Marine Mammals and Noise. San Diego; Toronto: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Robertson, B. C. & Chilvers, B. L. (2011). New Zealand sea lions Phocarctos hookeri possible causes of population decline. Mammal Review, 41, 253–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robertson, B. C., Chilvers, B. L., Duignan, P. J., Wilkinson, I. S. & Gemmell, N. J. (2006). Dispersal of breeding, adult male Phocarctos hookeri: Implications for disease transmission, population management and species recovery. Biological Conservation, 127, 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salgado Kent, C., Jenner, C., Jenner, M., Bouchet, P. & Rexstad, E. (2012). Southern Hemisphere Breeding Stock D humpback whale population estimates from North West Cape, Western Australia. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, 12, 29–38.Google Scholar
SCAR (1991). Report of the workshop or southern elephant seals, Monterey, California, USA (unpublished).
Shaughnessy, P. D. & Davenport, S. R. (1996). Underwater videographic observations and incidental mortality of fur seals around fishing equipment in south-eastern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, 47, 553–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shaughnessy, P., Kirkwood, R., Cawthorn, M., Kemper, C. & Pemberton, D. (2003). 7 Pinnipeds, cetaceans and fisheries in Australia: a review of operational interactions. Books Online, 2006, 136–152.Google Scholar
Shaughnessy, P. D., McIntosh, R. R., Goldsworthy, S. D., Dennis, T. E. & Berris, M. (2006). Trends in abundance of Australian sea lions, Neophoca cinerea, at Seal Bay, Kangaroo Island, south Australia. In Sea Lions of the World. (Eds. Trites, A. W., Atkinson, S. K., DeMaster, D. P., et al.,) pp. 325–351. A Laska Sea Grant Collage Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slip, D. J. & Burton, H. R. (1999). Population status and seasonal haulout patterns of the Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) at Heard Island. Antarctic Science, 11, 38–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slip, D. J., Hindell, M. A. & Burton, H. R. (1994). Diving behavior of southern elephant seals from Macquarie Island: an overview. In: Elephant Seals: Population Ecology, Behavior and Physiology, pp. 253–270.Google Scholar
Slooten, E. & Davies, N. (2012). Hector’s dolphin risk assessments: old and new analyses show consistent results. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 42, 49–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slooten, E. & Dawson, S. M. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of conservation management decisions: likely effects of new protection measures for Hector’s dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori). Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 20(3), 334–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slooten, E., Rayment, W. & Dawson, S. (2006). Offshore distribution of Hector’s dolphins at Banks Peninsula, New Zealand: is the Banks Peninsula Marine Mammal sanctuary large enough?New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 40, 333–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, I. W. G. (1989). Maori impact on the marine megafauna: pre-European distributions of New Zealand sea mammals. In Saying So Doesn’t Make It So. Papers in Honour of B. Foss Leach, (Ed. Sutton, D. G.), pp. 76–108. (New Zealand Archaeological Association Monograph 17.)Google Scholar
Smith, J. N., Grantham, H. S., Gales, N., et al. (2012). Identification of humpback whale breeding and calving habitat in the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 447, 259–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sobtzick, S., Hagihara, R., Grech, A. & Marsh, H. (2012). Aerial survey of the urban coast of Queensland to evaluate the response of the dugong population to the widespread effects of the extreme weather events of the summer of 2010–11. Final Report to the Australian Marine Mammal Censnvironment Research Program June 1 2012.
Southall, B. L., Bowles, A. E., Ellison, W. T., et al. (2007). Marine mammal noise special issue. Exposure criteria: initial scientific recommendations. Aquatic Mammals Special Edition, 33, 411–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steckenreuter, A., Harcourt, R. & Moller, L. (2011). Distances does matter: close approaches by boats impede feeding and resting behaviour of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins. Wildlife Research, 38, 455–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steckenreuter, A.Möller, L. & Harcourt, R. (2012). How does Australia’s largest dolphin-watching industry affect the behaviour of a small and resident population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins?Journal of Environmental Management, 97, 14–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stockin, K. A., Law, R. J., Duignan, P. J., et al. (2007). Trace elements, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in New Zealand common dolphins (Delphinus sp.). The Science of the Total Environment, 387, 333–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stone, B. M., Blyde, D. J., Saliki, J. T., et al. (2011). Fatal cetacean morbillivirus infection in an Australian offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Australian Veterinary Journal, 89, 452–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suter, K. D. (1981). The international politics of saving the whale. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 35, 283–294.Google Scholar
Thompson, P. M., Lusseau, D., Barton, T., et al. (2010). Assessing the responses of coastal cetaceans to the construction of offshore wind turbines. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60, 1200–1208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Torres, L. G., Smith, T. D., Sutton, P., et al. (2013). From exploitation to conservation: habitat models using whaling data predict distribution patterns and threat exposure of an endangered whale. Diversity and Distributions, 19, 1138–1152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trathan, P. N., Forcada, J. & Murphy, E. J. (2007). Environmental forcing and Southern Ocean marine predator populations: effects of climate change and variability. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 362, 2351–2365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trillmich, F., Ono, K. A., Costa, D. P., et al. (Eds.) (1991). The Effects of El Nino on Pinniped Populations in the Eastern Pacific, pp. 247–270. Berlin Heidelberg, Springer.Google Scholar
Twiss, S. D., Thomas, C., Poland, V., Graves, J. A. & Pomeroy, P. (2007). The impact of climatic variation on the opportunity for sexual selection. Biology Letters, 3, 12–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van den Hoff, J., Burton, H. R., Hindell, M. A., Sumner, M. D. & McMahon, C. R. (2002). Migrations and foraging of juvenile southern elephant seals from Macquarie Island within CCAMLR managed areas. Antarctic Science, 14, 134–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Waerebeek, K., Baker, A. N., Felix, F., et al. (2007). Vessel collisions with small cetaceans worldwide and with large whales in the Southern Hemisphere, an initial assessment. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals, 6, 43–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitehead, H., McGill, B. & Worm, B. (2008). Diversity of deep-water cetaceans in relation to temperature: implications for ocean warming. Ecology Letters, 11, 1198–1207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wiedenmann, J., Cresswell, K. A., Goldbogen, J., Potvin, J. & Mangel, M. (2011). Exploring the effects of reductions in krill biomass in the Southern Ocean on blue whales using a state-dependent foraging model. Ecological Modelling, 222, 3366–3379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, A. J., Soto, N. A., Baldwin, A. L., et al. (2007). Do marine mammals experience stress related to anthropogenic noise?. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 20, 274–316.Google Scholar
Yablokov, A. V. (1994). Validity of whaling data. Nature, 367, 108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats