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3 - The Monkey Crouch

Jockeying for Position

from Part I - Sports

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 July 2021

Edward A. Wasserman
Affiliation:
University of Iowa
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Summary

The butterfly is considered to be the most aggressively athletic of all swimming strokes. At least one contemporary author has deemed the history of the butterfly stroke to be particularly “murky.” Determining the origins of many behavioral innovations can indeed be difficult. However, it is now quite clear that The University of Iowa was the birthplace of the butterfly stroke. Coach David Armbruster and swimmer Jack Sieg originated the stroke in 1935, although it was not until 1956 that it was added to the Olympic Games in Melbourne, Australia, as a separate competition. Recounting that long and interesting history underscores the importance of gritty persistence and systematic experimentation to achieving success in athletic contests as well as in daily life.

Type
Chapter
Information
As If By Design
How Creative Behaviors Really Evolve
, pp. 39 - 48
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

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References

References

Cameron, J. (Artist). (1872). Standard Upright Racing Style Prior to the Introduction of the Monkey Crouch. Harry Bassett and Longfellow at Saratoga, New York, July 16, 1872 (and) at Long Branch, New Jersey, July 2, 1872 [Poster]. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Harry_Bassett_and_Longfellow_at_Saratoga,_N.Y.,_July_16th_1872_(and)_at_Long_Branch,_N.J.,_July_2nd_1872._LCCN2002695833.jpgGoogle Scholar
Cox, H. (1922). Chasing and Racing: Some Sporting Reminiscences. New York: Dutton.Google Scholar
Dizikes, J. (2000). Yankee Doodle Dandy: The Life and Times of Tod Sloan. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Giles, G. D. (Artist). (1899). Caricature of American Jockey Tod Sloan [Illustration]. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tod_Sloan_caricature.jpgGoogle Scholar
Holden, C. (2009, July 16). How the “Monkey Crouch” Transformed Horseracing. Science. www.sciencemag.org/news/2009/07/how-monkey-crouch-transformed-horseracingGoogle Scholar
Pfau, T., Spence, A. J., Starke, S., Ferrari, M., and Wilson, A. M. (2009). Modern Riding Style Improves Horse Racing Times. Science, 325, 289.Google Scholar
Riess, S. A. (2011). The American Jockey, 1865–1910. Transatlantica, 2.Google Scholar
Sloan, T. (1915). Tod Sloan: By Himself. New York: Brentano’s.Google Scholar
Vanity Fair (1909). Caricature of Mr. Harding Edward de Fonblanque Cox. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Harding_Edward_de_Fonblanque_Cox,_Vanity_Fair,_1909–09-01.jpgGoogle Scholar
Watson, A. E. T. (1899). Racing, Past and Future. Badminton Magazine, 8, 2627.Google Scholar

Further Material

Asleson, R. (n.d.). Tod Sloan: Jockeying to Fame in the 1890s. Face to Face: A Blog from the National Portrait Gallery. https://npg.si.edu/blog/tod-sloan-jockeying-fame-1890sGoogle Scholar

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