Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 April 2014
Some early theories of stellar evolution
At the end of the nineteenth century the two main branches of stellar spectroscopy were spectral classification and radial-velocity measurements. The latter department was still in its relative infancy, but classification, thanks mainly to the energy of Pickering at Harvard, was a major activity. Classification had become closely related to theories of stellar evolution and these two aspects could hardly be disentangled in, for example, the classification devised by Lockyer , which involved first rising and then falling temperatures of stars over their life cycles, and which had some theoretical support from the work of Jonathan Homer Lane (1819–80) and August Ritter on the gravitational collapse of gaseous spheres.
The classification schemes used by Antonia Maury and Annie Cannon were also implicitly evolutionary theories, but with the direction of evolution being from the ‘earlier’ to ‘later’ spectral types. Rival theories to Lockyer's were then proposed for stellar evolution in the early years of the nineteenth century, with the Harvard spectral types as their basis, notably by Sir Arthur Schuster (1851–1934) in Great Britain  and by George Ellery Hale (1868–1938) in the United States . Schuster's scheme involved gravitational collapse and cooling of gaseous masses on the socalled Kelvin–Helmholtz timescale.
To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.
To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.
To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.