Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-dnb4q Total loading time: 0.786 Render date: 2022-07-01T14:19:12.977Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Chapter 2 - The Late Neolithic Site of Shir in Western Syria

The Final Phase of Occupation circa 6000 cal BC

from Part I - Upper Mesopotamia and Eastern Mediterranean

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 April 2022

Peter F. Biehl
Affiliation:
University of California, Santa Cruz
Eva Rosenstock
Affiliation:
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
Get access

Summary

The turn from the 7th to the 6th millennium cal BC is a period not very well known in the northern Levant. Even the recent increase in archaeological data for the Late Neolithic period does not yet allow for a thorough understanding of this time span. However, the data gathered at the site of Shir near Hama document a complex occupation history covering almost the entire 7th millennium cal BC The latest occupational levels date to the last third of the 7th millennium cal BC and are characterized by a great variety of dwellings, among which a large storage building and a separate burial ground are of special interest. This occupation came to an end, without any obvious cause, around 6200/6100 cal BC and, for a long time, did not have any successor site in the immediate surrounding area. For the time being it is not clear whether the desertion of the settlement is the beginning of a general hiatus in the region, whether a new settlement was founded elsewhere, or whether increasingly mobile ways of life began to develop. But in general, the low number of archaeological sites dating to the first half of 6th millennium cal BC might be an indication for changing settlement conditions around 6000 cal BC.

Type
Chapter
Information
6000 BC
Transformation and Change in the Near East and Europe
, pp. 17 - 31
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Bartl, Karin 2012 Shir/West Syria: The Settlement and Its Surroundings in the 7th Millennium cal. BCE. In Interpreting the Late Neolithic of Upper Mesopotamia, edited by Nieuwenhuyse, Olivier P., Bernbeck, Reinhard, Akkermans, Peter M. M. G. and Rogasch, Jana, pp.417428. Brepols, Turnhout.Google Scholar
Bartl, Karin (ed.) 2018 The Late Neolithic Site of Shir/Syria. Volume I: The Excavations at the South Area 2006–2009, Damaszener Forschungen 18, WBG/Philipp von Zabern, Darmstadt.Google Scholar
Bartl, Karin (ed.) in prep. The Late Neolithic Site of Shir/Syria. Volume II: The Excavations at the Northeast and Central Areas 2008–2010.Google Scholar
Bartl, Karin and al-Hafian, Wael 2014 Shir – Settlement and Environment of the 7th Millennium BC in the Northern Levant. In New Prospecting in the Orontes Region. First Results of Archaeological Fieldwork, edited by Bartl, Karin and al-Maqdissi, Michel, pp. 149161, Orient-Archäologie 30, Marie Leidorf Verlag, Rahden.Google Scholar
Bartl, Karin, and Haidar, Ammar 2008 Shir, ein neolithischer Fundplatz am mittleren Orontes: Vorläufiger Bericht über die Ergebnisse der Testkampagne Herbst 2005 und Grabungskampagne Frühjahr 2006. Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie 1:5488.Google Scholar
Bartl, Karin, and al-Maqdissi, Michel 2007 Ancient Settlements in the Middle Orontes Region between ar-Rastan and Qal´at Shayzar: First Results of Archaeological Surface Investigations 2003–2004. In Studi Archeologici su Qatna I: Urban and Natural Landscapes of an Ancient Syrian Capital, Settlement and Environment at Tell Mishrifeh/Qatna and in Central-Western Syria, edited by Bonacossi, Daniele Morandi, pp. 243252. Forum, Udine.Google Scholar
Bartl, Karin, and al-Maqdissi, Michel 2014 Archaeological Prospecting on the Middle Orontes River: Survey Work between ar-Rastan and Qalcat Šayzar. In New Prospecting in the Orontes Region. First Results of Archaeological Fieldwork, edited by Bartl, Karin and al-Maqdissi, Michel, pp. 6177, Orient-Archäologie 30, Marie Leidorf Verlag, Rahden.Google Scholar
Bartl, Karin, and al-Maqdissi, Michel 2016 Archaeological Survey in the Hama Region 2003-2005. In Le fleuve rebelle. Géographie historique du moyen Oronte d´Ebla à l´époque médiévale, edited by Parayre, Dominique, pp. 303320 Syria Supplement IV.Google Scholar
Bartl, Karin, and Ramadan, Jamal 2008 The Late Neolithic Site of Shir. Third Season of Excavations in 2007, Chronique Archéologique 3, 6373.Google Scholar
Bartl, Karin, Hijazi, Majid and Ramadan, Jamal 2009 Die spätneolithische Siedlung Shir/Westsyrien: Vorläufiger Bericht über die Ergebnisse der Grabungskampagnen Herbst 2006 und Frühjahr 2007. Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie 2:140161.Google Scholar
Bartl, Karin, Ramadan, Jamal and al-Hafian, Wael 2009 Shir/West Syria: Results of the Fourth and Fifth Seasons of Excavations in 2008. Chronique Archéologique en Syrie 4:5966.Google Scholar
Bartl, Karin, Ramadan, Jamal and al-Hafian, Wael 2011 Shir/West Syria: Results of the Sixth and Seventh Season of Excavations in 2009. Chronique Archéologique en Syrie 5:5160.Google Scholar
Bartl, Karin, Farzat, Abdulqader and al-Hafian, Wael 2012 The Late Neolithic Site of Shir. New Results from 2010. Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie 5:168187.Google Scholar
Cameron, Catherine M., and Tonka, Steve A. 1993 The Abandonment of Settlements and Regions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Contenson, Henri (editor) 1992 Ras Shamra-Ougarit VIII: préhistoire de Ras Shamra. Les sondages stratigraphiques de 1955 à 1976. Éditions Recherche sur les civilisations, Paris.Google Scholar
Dietrich, Laura in prep. The Excavations at the Northeast Area 2008–2009. In The Late Neolithic Site of Shir/Syria. Volume II: The Excavations at the Northeast and Central Areas 2008–2010, edited by Karin Bartl.Google Scholar
Fortin, Michel 2007 La vallée du Ghab: nouvelle prospection archéologique. In Studi Archeologici su Qatna I: Urban and Natural Landscapes of an Ancient Syrian Capital, Settlement and Environment at Tell Mishrifeh/Qatna and in Central-Western Syria, edited by Bonacossi, Daniele Morandi, pp. 253268. Forum, Udine.Google Scholar
Fortin, Michel and Cooper, Elisabeth 2014 Nouvelle prospection archéologique dans la moyenne vallée de l’Oronte: entre Cheyzar et Tell Qarqur. In New Prospecting in the Orontes Region. First Results of Archaeological Fieldwork, edited by Bartl, Karin and al-Maqdissi, Michel, pp. 85105, Orient-Archäologie 30, Marie Leidorf Verlag, Rahden.Google Scholar
Haïdar-Boustani, Maya, Ibañez, Juan José, al-Maqdissi, Michel, et al. 2003–2004. Prospections archéologiques à l´ouest de la ville de Homs: rapport préliminaire campagne 2004. Tempora: Annales d´histoire et d´archéologie, Université Saint-Joseph, Beyrouth 14-15:5990.Google Scholar
Hours, Francis, Aurenche, Olivier, Cauvin, Jacques, et al. 1994 Atlas des sites de Proche Orient (14000–5700 BP). Maison de l´Orient méditerranéen, Lyon.Google Scholar
Iwasaki, Takuya and Tsuneki, Akira (eds). 2003. Archaeology of the Rouj Basin I: A Regional Study of the Transition from Village to City in Northwest Syria. Department of Archaeology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba.Google Scholar
Lewis, Norman 1987 Nomads and Settlers in Syria and Jordan 1800–1980. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
al-Maqdissi, Michel, Haïdar-Boustani, Maya, Ibáñez, Juan José, et al. 2014 Entre Homs et Qalat al-Hosn. In New Prospecting in the Orontes Region. First Results of Archaeological Fieldwork, edited by Bartl, Karin and al-Maqdissi, Michel, pp. 5160, Orient-Archäologie 30, Marie Leidorf Verlag, Rahden.Google Scholar
Neef, Reinder 2009 Paläobotanische Funde. In Die spätneolithische Siedlung Shir/Westsyrien: Vorläufiger Bericht über die Ergebnisse der Grabungskampagnen Herbst 2006 und Frühjahr 2007, edited by Bartl, Karin, Hijazi, Majid and Ramadan, Jamal., pp. 154156. Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie 2.Google Scholar
Neef, Reinder 2018 X Palaeobotanical Remains. In The Late Neolithic Site of Shir/Syria. Volume I: The Excavations at the South Area 2006–2009, edited by Bartl, Karin, pp. 688694, Damaszener Forschungen 18, WBG/Philipp von Zabern, Darmstadt.Google Scholar
Nelson, Margaret C., and Schachner, Gregson 2002 Understanding Abandonment in the North American Southwest. Journal of Archaeological Research 10/2:167206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nieuwenhuyse, Olivier 2009 The Late Neolithic Ceramics from Shir. A First Assessment. Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie 2:310356.Google Scholar
Nieuwenhuyse, Olivier P. 2018 VIa Pottery. In The Late Neolithic Site of Shir/Syria. Volume I: The Excavations at the South Area 2006–2009, edited by Bartl, Karin, pp. 263423, Damaszener Forschungen 18, WBG/Philipp von Zabern, Darmstadt.Google Scholar
Philip, Graham, and Bradbury, Jennie 2010 Pre-Classical Activity in the Basalt Landscape of the Homs Region, Syria: Implications for the Development of “Sub-Optimal” Zones in the Levant during the Chalcolithic-Early Bronze Age. Levant 52/2:136169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Philip, Graham and Newson, Paul 2014 Settlement in the upper Orontes Valley: a Preliminary Statement. In New Prospecting in the Orontes Region. First Results of Archaeological Fieldwork, edited by Bartl, Karin and al-Maqdissi, Michel, pp. 3339, Orient-Archäologie 30, Marie Leidorf Verlag, Rahden.Google Scholar
Resch, Denise and Gresky, Julia in prep. The Burials of the Central Area. In The Late Neolithic Site of Shir/Syria. Volume II: The Excavations at the Northeast and Central Areas 2008–2010, edited by Bartl, Karin.Google Scholar
Rogasch, Jana 2011 Biography of a Neolithic Storage Building: The Construction, Modification and Abandonment of Communal Storage and Communal Space at the Pottery Neolithic Settlement of Shir, Syria (6200–6100 BC) M.A. Thesis. Neo-Lithics 2/2011:43.Google Scholar
Rollefson, Gary O. 2009 Slippery Slope: The Late Neolithic Rubble Layer in the Southern Levant. Neo-Lithics 1/2009:1218.Google Scholar
Simmons, Alan H. 1997 Ecological Changes during the Late Neolithic in Jordan: A Case Study. In The Prehistory of Jordan II: Perspectives from 1997, edited by Gebel, Hans G., Kafafi, Zeidan A. and Rollefson, Gary O., pp. 309318. ex oriente, Berlin.Google Scholar
Stevenson, Marc G. 1982 Toward an Understanding of Site Abandonment Behaviour: Evidence from Historic Mining Camps in the Southwest Yukon. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 1:237265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thuesen, Ingolf 1988 Hama I: The Pre- and Protohistoric Periods. Nationalmuseet, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
Tsuneki, Akira, Hydar, Jamal, Odaka, Takahiro and Hasegawa, Atsunori 2007 A Decade of Excavations at Tell el-Kerkh, 1997–2006. Department of Archaeology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba.Google Scholar
Weninger, Bernhard, Clare, Lee, Rohling, Eelco, et al. 2009 The Impact of Rapid Climate Change on Prehistoric Societies during the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean. Documenta Praehistorica 36:759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weninger, Bernhard, Clare, Lee and Bartl, Karin 2018, IV High-Resolution Chronology of Shir, South Area. In The Late Neolithic Site of Shir/Syria. Volume I: The Excavations at the South Area 2006–2009, edited by Bartl, Karin, pp. 181196, Damaszener Forschungen 18, WBG/Philipp von Zabern, Darmstadt.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×